Popular in Biology 1
Popular in Biology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Harrison Harward on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Chase in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Biology 1 in Biology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Biology 12516 0 Strong acids and bases 0 Dissociate completely in water 0 Exs HCI strong acid and NaOH strong base 0 Weak acids and bases 0 Reversible binding and release of H o Fixed ratio of products to reactants at equilibrium 0 Carbonic acid H2CO3is a weak acid reversible 0 AT equilibrium 1 of the molecules are dissociated o Ammonia is a weak base NH3 0 Most C02 is transported in human blood as H2CO3HCO3 carbonic acidbicarbonate dissolved in blood plasma pH and dissociation of water 0 ln solution the product of H and OH is constant 0 In a neutral solution H 10397 Mand OH 10397 M 1039710397 103914 M 0 Add acid H to a solution Shifts balance between H and OH toward H Leads to a decrease in OH lf H 10395 M then OH 10399M OH decreases because some of additional acid combines with hydroxide to form water 0 Adding base has opposite effect OOOO pH Scale 0 pH ogH H 10quot H In a neutral solution 0 pH 7 o H 10397M 0 OH 10397M Values for pH decline as H increases 0 pH scale is based on H 0 Values for OH can be easily calculated from the product relationship 0 What is the pH of a solution that contains 10396M hydrogen ions protons H 0 pH 6 this solution is acidic What is the pH of a solution that contains 10396 M hydroxide ions OH 0 pH 8 this solution is basic Buffers Chemical processes in the cell can be disrupted by changes in h and oh away from normal values near ph7 To maintain cellular pH values at a constant level biological uids have buffers 0 pH buffers o Resist changes in pH when h or oh is added 0 Accept h from solution when protons are in excess 0 Donate H when protons have been depleted pH buffers typically consists of a weak acid and its corresponding base 0 the chemical equilibrium between carbonic acid and bicarbonate acts at a pH regulator Carbon the backbone of life 0 Living organisms consist mostly of carbonbased compounds 0 Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large Complex and varied molecules 0 Proteins DNA carbohydrates and other molecules that distinguish living matter are all composed of carbon compounds Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Organic Molecules and the origin of life on earth 0 Stanley Miller s classic experiment demonstrated the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds 0 Experiments support the idea that abiotic synthesis of organic compounds perhaps near volcanoes could have been a stage in the origin of life Figure 4 2 Atmosphere L Cll4 FWater vapor g1 Mush Electrode gt H s 1 J I J Condenser l l 79k r Cooled rain 3 a 7 containing U K 9039 organic Water molecules leO l l sea l u Sample for chemical analysis 2014 Pearson Education Inc Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms 0 Carbon has 6 electrons 6 e39 o 2 e in the rst shell full 0 4 e in the second shell 8 e needed to ll 2nCI shell 0 Carbon has little tendency to form ionic bonds by losing or gaining 4 electrons earlier concept electronegativity Carbons tetravalence makes large complex molecules possible earlier concept valence C02 is the source for all organic molecules in organisms through the process of photosynthesis 0 C02 may be considered organic or inorganic A molecule39s biological function is related to its shape 0 3D shape of a molecule is important for its function Molecule s shape determined by arrangement of electron orbitals that are shared by the atoms involved in the bond For atoms with electrons in both 5 and p orbitals the formation of a covalent bonds leads to hybridization of the orbitals to four new orbitals in a tetrahedron shape Butane and isobutene are cistrans isomers false Butane and isobutene are structural isomers true Functional groups contribute to the molecular diversity of life Functional groups chemical groups that replace one or more H atoms of the carbon skeleton of a hydrocarbon Behave consistently from one organic molecule to another Number and arrangement of functional groups help give molecules unique properties Seven Functional groups SX are hydrophilic increase solubility in water Hydroxyl group a H atom forms a polar covalent bond with O atom which forms a polar covalent bond to the carbon skeleton b Polar covalent bonds improve solubility of organic molecules Carbonyl group a Oxygen atom joined to the carbon skeleton by a double bond b Ketone carbonyl group is not on the end c Aldehyde carbonyl group is on the end d lsomers with aldehydes versus ketones have different properties Carboxyl group a Carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom and a single bond to a hydroxyl group b Carboxylic acids compounds with carboxyl groups c A carboxyl group acts as an acid because of combined electronegativities of two adjacent O atoms
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