EAPS 116: Week 2 Notes
EAPS 116: Week 2 Notes EAPS 116
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zach Weinkauf on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAPS 116 at Purdue University taught by Julie Elliot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Earthquake and Volcanos in Earth Sciences at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Plate Tectonics Lecture 3 January 19 2016 0 Many people 1596 on suggested that Africa and South America t together so there may be a connection Eduard Seuss found that many of the same fossils are found on different continents so they may have been connected 0 Alfred Wegener 18801930 suggested quotContinental Driftquot due to the fossils on different continents climate patterns glacial deposits and rock assemblagemountain belts p3638 o Pangea 250 million years ago 0 Help prove quotcontinental Driftquot helped by wars SONAREcho Sounding MagnetometersMagnetic anomaly detectors of seismic stations increased due to monitoring for nuclear blasts Henry Hess found that oceanic crust is much thinner making it possibly younger than continental crust Paleomagnetism magnetic elds of ancient rocks indicate the orientation of the magnetic eld relative to the rock at the time rock was formed p49 Magnetic Inclination angle between magnetic eld line and the surface of the earth p40 Magnetic Declination angle between the direction of the compass needle points and a line of longitude at given location p41 Paleopole supposed position of earth s north pole in the past 0 SeaFloor Spreading p4349 o Midocean Ridges submarine mountain ranges that sit 225 km deep Heat ow from mantle ows through axis and diminishes as distance increases 0 Henry Hess discovered spreading by combining WW2 experiments with new ocean maps Robert Dietz named it quotSea oor Spreadingquot o VineMatthewsMorley studied magnetic anomalies on either side of ridge 0 Plate Tectonic Theory p 4952 0 Earth39s crust and uppermost mantle lithosphere is divided into rigid plates and plates move above asthenosphere 0 Most geological activity takes place along the boundaries between plates interiors are stable 0 Types of Boundaries o Divergent Boundaries p5253 AKA Constructive Boundary Spreading Center Spreading Ridge MidOcean Ridge Rift on land Two oceanic plates move apart by sea oor spreading D D creates midocean ridge Two continental plates l l creates a rift Lithosphere thickens away from axis 0 Convergent Boundaries p 5456 Two plates at least one oceanic move toward one another DD Oceanic plate subducts beneath continental crust Two oceanic plates D D creates a trench Two continental plates l l continental collision mountain belt VolcanoesIsland Volcanoes normally form WadatiBenioff zone the line of earthquakes in a down going plane Plate is consumed through process of Subduction Lecture 4 January 21 2016 o Transform Boundaries p 57 Fracture Zones lie roughly at right angles to the ridge segments intersect the ends of the segments and extend beyond the segments Two plates slide past each other De nition the actively slipping segment of a fracture zone between two ridge segments Creates Faults large fracture on which sliding occurs slopes gently to the west FairweatherQueen Charlotte System onshore and offshore fault connects Explorer RidgeCascadia subduction zone with Alaska convergent margin Alpine Fault NZ No new plate is formed and no old plate is consumed How plates move p6667 o RidgePush Force develops because lithosphere of midocean ridges lies at a higher elevation than that of the adjacent abyssal plains Slab Pull Force force that subducting downgoing plates apply to oceanic lithosphere at a convergent margin Relative Plate Motion if you describe one plate movement compared to another Absolute Plate Motion if you describe both plates in comparison to a xed location in the mantle below the plates Hotspot J Tuzo Wilson absolute plate motion 0 Ways to measure plate motion 0 Geodesy O O O O 0 GPS 0 Satellites in Space measuring distance between satellites and stations on earth 0 Trilateration Types of Faults p221 0 Normal Fault hanging wall moves downward ReverseThrust Fault hanging wall moves up Strikeslip Fault one block slides past another no vertical displacement Aren39t always the same as transform faults Don39t need a junction 0 Doesn t have uniform displacement along entire length
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