A&P Notes Week 2
A&P Notes Week 2 BIOL 2510 - 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Barranco on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Chapters 18 amp 19 Cardiovascular System General Characteristics of the He 0 Size fist of an adult 0 Weight about 250350 grams 0 Location Thoracic cavity between the lungs mediastinum Functions of the He 0 Generates blood pressure needed 0 Separates pulmonary circulation by tissues of lung from systemic circulation 0 Can alter rateforce of contraction to match metabolic needs of tissues Heart Anatomy 0 Pericardium has two layers the fibrous pericardium and serous pericardium fibrous tough dense connective tissue Protects anchors prevents over filling serous Epithelial tissue and connective tissue Has a parietal layer and Visceral layer Heart Chambers 0 There are 4 chambers 2 atria and 2 ventricles opening between right and left atria in embryofetus 0 Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from 3 veins 0 Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from 4 pulmonary veins 2 right pulmonary veins 2 left pulmonary veins Right ventricle receives deoxygenated blood from right atrium It then pumps it through pulmonary trunk to lungs Pulmonary trunk splits into left and right pulmonary arteries Left ventricle received oxygenated blood from left atrium and pumps it through the aorta to body tissues Ventricular walls are MUCH thicker than atrial walls because pumping blood out to body Cardiovascular circulation The Sides of the He Anterior aspect of heart consists of 8 parts 1 Aorta 2 Pulmonary artery 3 Superior vena cava 4 Inferior vena cava 5 Pulmonary veins 6 Coronary arteriesveins 7 Right pulmonary artery 8 Left pulmonary artery Posterior aspect of heart consists of 9 parts Some of the parts from the anterior aspect are also found on the posterior aspect Aorta Right pulmonary artery Left pulmonary artery Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Right pulmonary veins most apparent from posterior view Left pulmonary veins most apparent from posterior view Apex of heart Coronary sinus WWNQMPPP Heart Valves 0 2 types of heart valves Atrioventricular valves and Semilunar valves Chordae tendineae collagen cords attach AV valves to papillary muscles Atrial relaxation and contraction valves open Ventricular contraction valves snap close Tricuspid valve between right atrium and right ventricle Has 3 cusps of endocardium reinforced by connective tissue core Bicuspid valve mitral valve between left atrium and left ventricle Has 2 cusps of endocardium reinforced by connective tissue core ventricular contraction valves open ventricular relaxation valves fill with blood and close The heart makes a sound like lub dub AV valves closing lub sound SL valves closing dub sound Blood Flow throu2h he The following are the steps for how blood ows through the heart blood enter the atria blood passes through open AV valve into the ventricles atria contracts pushing additional blood into ventricles as the ventricles contract the AV valves CLOSE at the same time that the AV valves are closing semilunar valves are OPEN as ventricles relax the semilunar valves CLOSE and blood is propelled to the body Blood Clot Plasma proteins and platelets in blood initiate clot formation Requires clotting factors and substances released by platelets and injured tissues Vascular spasm Vessel responds to injury with vasoconstriction Vascular spasms are triggered by direct injury to vascular smooth muscle chemicals released by endothelial cells and platelets and pain re exes Most effective in smaller blood vessels Can significantly reduce blood ow until other mechanisms can kick in Step 2 platelet plug formation platelets stick to collagen fibers that are exposed when vessel is damaged platelets do not stick to intact vessel walls because collagen is not exposed also prostacyclin and nitric oxide secreted by endothelial cells act to prevent platelet sticking Von Willebrand factor helps to stabilize plateletcollagen adhesion When activated platelets swell become spiked and sticky and release chemical messengers mm Coagulation blood clotting reinforces platelet plug with fibrin threads Blood clots are effective in sealing larger vessel breaks Blood is transformed from liquid to gel Series of reactions use clotting factors procoagulants mostly plasma proteins Numbered I to XIII in order of discovery Vitamin K needed to synthesize four factors Coagulation occurs in 3 phases Two pathways to prothrombin activator Initiated by either intrinsic or extrinsic pathway usually both Involves a series of procoaguants Each pathway cascades toward and ends with the activation of factor X Factor X then complexes with Cas2 PF3 9platelet factor 3 and factor V to form prothrombin Phase 3 Common pathway to fibrin mesh Thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen to fibrin Fibrin strands form structural basis of clot Fibrin causes plasma to become a gellike trap catching formed elements Thrombin along with Ca2 activates factor XIII fibrin stabilizing factor which crosslinks fibrin strengthens and stabilizes clot Anticoagulants factor that normally dominates in blood to inhibit coagulation Clot retraction and fibrinolysis Clot must stabilized and removed when damage has been repaired Systemetic and Dulmongrv circuits Coronary circulation Function blood supply to heart muscle itself Shortest circulation in body Delivered When heart is relaxed Left ventricle received most of coronary blood supply Coronary circuit Deliver blood to myocardium Arteries Right and left coronary artery form the has of aorta right coronary is on the right side of heart left coronary artery is on the left side of the heart Veins cardiac veins join together to coronary sinus then back to right atrium Cardiac muscle microscopic anatomy Myofibrils With sarcomeres Ttubules at Z discs and SR lacks terminal cisternae Pacemaker potential and AP of autorythmic cells Slow Na channels open K channels close g slow depolarization pacemaker potential After reaching threshold Ca channels open g rapid depolarization starts action potential Repolarization K channels open Ca channels close g ef ux of K UNLIKE CARDIAC CONTRACTILE FIBERS amp SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS Autorhythmic cells HAVE UNSTABLE RESTING POTENTIAL continuously depolarizes MEMBRANE POTENTIAL NEVER A FLAT LINE Action potential of contractile cells Intrinsic Cardia Conduction System consists of autorythmic cells that initiate and distribute electrical impulses throughout the heart to depolarizecontract in orderly manner Electrocgrdioargm ECG Electrodes attached to surface of body to detect Aps being transmitted through the heart Is not the tracing of a single AP but he combined APS of all nodalcontractile cells at a given time displays electrical events not mechanical events Electrical events always come first and cause mechanical events for example atrial depolarization leads to atrial systole traces depolarization wave from SA node through atria 01 sec lateratrial systole Causes atrial depolarization allowing the atria to complete contraction Ventricular depolarization begins Atrial repolarization occurs during this time as well but it is hidden by ventricular depolarization ventricular depolarization is complete ventricular repolarization Heart Rates Normal 6510 bpm avg 72 Tachycardia gt 100 bpm Bradycardia lt 60 bpm Arrhythmias i Stenotic valve fails to open completely prolapse valve fails to close completely CO heart rate X stroke volume SV enddiastolic volume EDV endsystolic volume ESV How the heart bea 0 Preload contractility afterload balloon analogy Think of the heart as a balloon how much the balloon is stretched the more air the more stretched Think of a new and old balloon With a new one the more you put in air further it Will y with an old one you have to put more air to y the same distance Regulation of heart rate Intrinsic Within the heart Regulated by SA node AV node BOH purkinje fibers Extrinsic outside the heart Neural regulation Via Autonomic nervous system CARDIOVASCULAR CENTERS IN MEDULLA CARDIOACCELETORY CENTER sends signals Via symp CARDIOINHIBITORY CENTER sends signals Via para