Week notes PHI2600
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Midhu Robin on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI2600 at Florida International University taught by Noel Alphonse in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY in PHIL-Philosophy at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 01/25/16
Test 1 Review The study and evaluation of human conduct in light of moral principles How do we evaluate arguments Reasons for accepting a conclusion Premise Conclusion A claim that an arguer is presenting o True premisesTruth An argument with true premises 0 The conclusions follow from the premises Does not make it true though o Both sound and valid 0 Reasons for accepting a conclusion 0 The end point of argumentation o An error or mistake in reasoning The problem of Evil 0 The logical form o If P then Q o P 0 Therefore 0 Q ModusTollens The odicies Soulbuilding If P then Q o P Therefore 39 Q A deductive argument is if and only if it is both valid and all of its premises and actually true Otherwise a deductive argument is unsound Validity is a technical term refers to an argument FORM An argument is valid or invalid solely because of its logical form The conclusion expresses what is implied by the combination of premises 1 In a valid argument the conclusion logically follows from the premises 2 Assessing form is a job for validity 3 Assessing content is a job for soundness There must be more to being a good deductive argument than being VALID There HAS to be sound Valid and Sound A valid deductive argument that contains only true premises 0 Being invalid means that their conclusions do not follow from their premises o It is possible for their primes to be true and their conclusions false An error or mistake in reasoning Slippery Slope A change in procedure will result in adverse consequences Result in something bad Example quotIf you were tight jeans you will hang out with drug abusersquot 0 Ab Hominem Latin quotto the manquot Donald Trump Carry Fionra Attacking someone but just making fun of them A type of fallacy Example quotShe always makes those argumentsquot Appeal to ignorance Appeal to the ignorance of you audience as evidence for a particular claim 0 Appeal to traditional biases or strengths of the audience as evidence for a particular claim Example quotWe as Americans have always built like thisquot 0 Argument from omniscience Assuming that everyone knows and infers a particular conclusion Example quotEverybody knows that Wheaties is the best cerealquot A fallacious based on misleading appeal to nature Aspects of Utilitarian theories 1 Consequentialist 2 Teleological 3 Extrinsic Outside the act itself 4 Realist 5 Instrumental Why is utilitarian theory teleological An ethical theory that judges the rightness or wrongness of an action in terms of it s consequences The morally BEST or better alternative is that which produces aThe greatest netquantity utility bUtility is de ned in terms of happiness c Ought to do which produces the greatest amount of pleasure for the greatest number 1 The teleological A system of ethics 2 Consequentialist The consequences of what determines the right answer from the wrong answer 3 Realist components of utilitarianism The moral worth of an act X depends on the consequences of X The moral worth of act X depends exclusively on act X
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