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Ch. 4 Notes

by: Isabella Morles

Ch. 4 Notes PSY2012

Isabella Morles
General Psychology
Professor Kimberly Smith

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These notes are better than my last set, getting back on track with note taking. Enjoy :)
General Psychology
Professor Kimberly Smith
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Monday January 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 01/25/16
Chapter 4 Notes WEl i ME Ill THE cm H I 5 iii Ell 1L3 1 Sensation and Perception are interrelated Compliment and support one another Identify and give meaning to stimuli information no sensation then perception is not possible perception sensations remain quotunknownquot to us HOWEVER their information processes are completely different Sensation bottom up processing Occurs when sensory organs transmit signals towards brain Perception top down processing When brain interrupts input amp sends signals for response Perception follows sensation Sensation vs perception Examples from Class Seeing the light sensation ls different from knowing its color perception Feeling the cold sensation ls different from knowing its winter perception Hearing a sound sensation ls different from knowing it s music perception Sensation The detection of physical energy by our sensory organs Perception Is the brains interpretation of raw sensory data Sensation 1 External physical stimulus emits energy 2 Energy is absorbed by sensory organ 3 Sensory receptor is stimulated 4 Nerve impulses are produced 5 lmpulses travel to the brain Perception Brain organizes neural impulse information Transduction occurs translation of impulses as image sound taste odor touch or pain Sensation is quotexperiencedquot you pretty much feel or use your senses to feel something Perception is greatest when stimulus is rst detected Listen to the song Lost Stars by Adam Lavine The vibrations in the song is the sensation Perception is our emotions to the song lip singing song in your head ect Sensory adaptation change in responsiveness of sensory system to stimuli Sensory receptors adapt to a stimulus Sensitivity to stimulus is diminished Occurs in all senses Examples Vision Dark adaptation response to decreased to light intensity brightness lt s when your pupils dilate get bigger the concentration of light sensitive chemicals in rods and cones increase Light adaptation increased light intensity brightness lt s when pupils constrict get smaller the concentration of lightsensitive chemical in rods and cones decrease its protective occurs faster than dark adaptation Hearing Repeated loud sounds contraction of small inner ear muscles to reduce sound vibration transmission Touch Lake water feels cold at rst then it just feels cool Smell At rst we detect low concentrations of an odor then later we stop noticing it paint store Sense Receptor specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a speci c sensory system lllusion perception in which the way we perceive a stimulus doesn t match its physical reality Your brain not your eyes perceive a complete pattern even though some of it can be missing Na39ive realism is wrong we cannot always believe our senses are infallible Psychophysics Study of how we percussive sensory stimuli from their physical Characteristics Absolute threshold minimum level of a stimulus energy we notice and detect Just noticeable difference smallest amount of stimulus change we can detect difference threshold l Webber s law the stronger the stimulus the greater the change necessary for the detection of a difference Signal Detection Theory It explains how stimuli are detected under certain conditions Stimulus Present No Stimulus Present Sensory Cross Modality Automatic involuntary connection is when you automatically think of something or someone when you see a picture of themit Pic of Obama Obama it makes connections between numbers and colors Synesthesia stimulation of one sense triggers involuntary experience in totally different sensory mode cross sensory combination hear colors taste words feel scents Course sensory modality hand experiment Brush on the real hand sensation Watching brush on rubber hand sensation Feel brush on rubber hand perception Selective attention choosing which sensory inputs to focus on and which to turn down Perceptual blindness failure to notice unexpected stimulus entering visual eld inattentional blindness Change blindness failure to notice changes in visual eld someone walks in as I watch TV and I do not notice them The Visual System We rely on vision more than any of the other senses Pupil hole where light enters the eye lris colored portion of the eye controls how much light enters Respond yes Respond quotNoquot TRUE Positive FALSE Negative FALSE Positive TRUE Negative EmileH a was SCIera white portion of the eye I 1 l quot3 v 394 v I vquot 5quot r A a j r l n L l i i g 439quot 1 quot gt ptii Manila Ci li lffy39 Bandy Refraction Light refraction light waves slow down as they pass from one material to another Causes waves to bend down towards a normal perpendicular line How light refracts in the eye is associated with visual activity Cornea curved clear front surface of the eye most refraction occurs here Lens also bends light changes curvature to ne tune images accommodation The shape of eye glass lenses alter the way light enters the eye Normal Vision light waves focus directly on retina Nearsighted eye shape is elongated light waves focus on the front of the retina blurry distance Farsighted eye shape is shortened light waves are focused in the back of the retina blurry close up Flash Card Example see a pin upside down because of the shadow our retina sees Normally light re ects off an object then passes the cornea and then an inverted image forms on the retina The cornea is not designed to work super short distances Light and Color Retina thin membrane at back of the eye Adapts to light intensity brightness Fovea dimple in center of retina Light hits 2 types of photoreceptors on the retina Photoreceptors Rod cells They receive low levels of light allow us to see at night Nucleus is in the middle circle part Cone cells They receive high energy wavelengths allow us to see in color hue Red 60 Green 30 Blue 10 Painters tint the original color with white to indicate where light hits an object tree top sky etc Additive mixing lights red green and blue white Subtractive mixing pigments yellow cyan and magenta black Painters use complimentary colors to subtract light from an area and create shadows tree shadow persons shadow Optic Nerve exits the back of the eye composed of ganglion cell axons optic disk causes blind spot PRINT MDDEHETE VERY lJJllllJ EXTREMELY MUD FMNFUlL I l ECLILIm e 139 7 7 WEEK 3 EL ETI39ml PM Lamar l V39C l l N oooo I Conversation Visual System Feature detection using patterns to sort and identify complex stimuli Feature detector cells neurons that code for perceptually signi cant stimuli Trichromatic Theory color vision is based on sensitivity to 3 primary colors blue green red Typically colorblind people have redgreen or blueyellow andness However red and green cones work together to create yellow so why does redgreen colorblindness not also create yellow colorblindness Opponent Process Theory color vision is a function of complimentary colors 4 main colors red green blue and yellow plus black and white Color vision is a function of 3 pairs of opposing color cells red vs green blue vs yellow and black vs white This explains both colorblindness and after images Auditory System After vision we rely most on hearing Audition our sense of hearing Sound vibration traveling through a medium usually air air particles move back and forth and create sound waves characteristics frequency amplitude timbre Frequency Pitch sound wave frequency Hz rate of vibrations Wavelengths are halved when the frequency is doubled Amplitude loudness sound wave amplitude dB Outer Ear 39 399 I F CQEHQ l 1 Conductive Senso neumi 9 Timbre complexity sound wave tone or quality most sounds are complex Outer ear pinna ear canal tympanic membrane Middle ear ossicles hammer anvil stirrup Inner ear cochlea organ of corti hair cells and basilar membrane Cochlea bony spinal shaped sense organ used for hearing Organ of Corti tissue containing the hair cells necessary for hea ng Basilar Membrane membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the cochlea Audio transduction process of translating sound in to neural activity Once transduced our brain organizes sensory data into meaning Pitch Perfection Place theory different sounds excite different areas of the basilar membrane a and primary auditory cortex explains high pitched tone perception Frequency Theory and Volley Theory rate of neuron ring reproduces the sound frequency explain low and middle pitch perception Smell and Taste Systems Olfactory and Gustatory Gustation sense of taste Olfaction sense of smell nose tongue Both senses meet in the orbitofrontal cortex below prefrontal cortex Described as the chemical senses Work together to enhance food preferences In uenced by culture Are smell and taste crossmodal an empirical question We might think yes but the textbook says NO Fatty taste rst thought to be olfactory driven ruled out because it has to make contact with the tongue Pheromones olfactory related only inability to smallinability to taste discussed separately Signals for both senses meet in an area of the frontal lobe insular cortex We are able to sense thousands of different smells odorants Smell Pheromones naturally occurring odorless chemicals found to alter sexual behavior in some mammals Is the jury still out on humans Detected by vomeronasal organ Vomeronasal organ not developed in humans why 39 I Olfactory Bulb SmelllEiTaste Centre quot 39 Haganwa Nostril 39 Hard Palate Sbflt Palate quot39 TangueTaste Receptors Separate taste buds for each basic taste l Sour acidity detector hydrochloric acid citric acid lemons green Bitter quinine detectors coffee Brussel sprouts cocoa red Sweet sucrose sugar detector blue Salty sodium ion detector purple Umami savory MSG detectors cheese tomatoes beans peach Are you a super taster PTC only has a taste to 7 out of 10 people Thiourea may have a taste if you can taste PTC Sodium Benzoate different genes determine if you can taste this if it tastes salty bitter or sweet to you then you have the dominant gene If not then you are recessive ss Senses Meet the Brain Parallel processing attending to multiple senses at once Bottom up processing begins with raw sensory data and ends with our assigning meaning to the experience constructing the whole from its parts Top down processing begins with our expectations meanings assigned from previous experience and ends with our imposing them on raw stimuli How we de ne color Objects possess different properties which determine how light waves react when they strike the object Color perception is usually discussed in terms of the light that bounces off an object White is the presence of light ALL of the colors all of the light waves bounce off the object Black is the absence of light NO color no light waves bounce off the object This is how the Trichromatic Color Theory explains color perception We detect the red light waves as they bounce off the apple so we perceive that the apple is red Also we can say the apple absorbs all of the light waves that are not red Black absorbs all the light waves White absorbs none of the light waves Main point is the light waves we detect and interpret which covey the color of the object Allergic reactions are due to allergen speci c immunoglobulin E antibodies The levels are not static Levels vary with exposure to the allergen For example in mangos its urushiol that triggers a reaction So the unusual increase in mango consumption could have triggered an increase in the antibodies speci c to urushio Our Bodies Senses Body systems Vestibular sense of balance balance equilibrium voluntary motor movement coordination Proprioception kinesthetic sense keeping track of where we are senses muscle stretch and force Brain integrates this info for overall sense of body position movement and acceleration Somatosensory touch and pain nerve endings in the skin response to pressure temperature and injury Homunculus What our brain sees more somatosensory sensitivity in the larger areas of the homunculus Phantom pain Pain coming from a body part that is no longer there Real sensations originate in the spinal cord and brain Gate control model of pain Pain blocked from consciousness by neural mechanisms in the spinal cord Pain is in uenced by emotional and cultural factors Ergonomics eld of study that combines psychology and technology to design to better gadgets and tools to suit our sensory and perceptual capabilities Perceptual hypothesis Perceptual sets expectations in uence perceptions Conservation of cognitive energy Perceptual constancy Perceived stimuli consistency across conditions Size shape color of object perceived as constant despite objective fact that they are not Size constancy like you holding the tower of pizza or touching the Eiffel Tower Shape constancy quarter in front and side view Color constancy white cup but part is in shadow Subliminal processing Subliminal perception occurs below the level of conscious awareness Lack of time for in depth processing not likely to result in subliminal persuasion Short term impact on behaviors and attitudes Textbook says disappears when aware of subliminal messages Depth perception ability to judge distance and 3D relations Monocular depth cues stimuli that enable us to judge depth using only one eye Binocular depth cues stimuli that enable us to judge depth using both eyes Extrasensory perception perception of events outside the known channels of sensation Cr ihr i gl39r39n plaie If e 39lr rmid tmr sa shamid 1an Sana tr mica SJerifr turbinate GibDana Middle turbinate r391quotampr39ic1r39 IL le vatimle 39 I 1 A te ur 39 I V FELF39S 39 39 quot Opening ofquot auditury EJEIEEFEP tube Su palate Hard palate


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