Lecture Notes 1/27/16
Lecture Notes 1/27/16 13340
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Bautista on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 13340 at New York University taught by Eugene McBride in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Social Foundations II in Arts and Humanities at New York University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Social Foundations II Professor McBride Lecture 12716 Color Code Notable People Notable Dates Notable De nitions Items Written on the Board 0 Arius Arianism Uflla Barbarians o Barbaroi o Arminius Herman I 9 CE I Varus o Gauls France 0 Goths Germans I Crossing Danube 377 CE I Crossing Rhine 406 CE 0 Visigoths I Adrianople 378 CE I Alaric amp Jack of Rome 410 CE 0 Vandals I Across France to Spain to North Africa I Augustine Hippo I Bow I Deformation I Attila D 453 CE I Protection Racket o Scirii I Allied with Huns I Odoacer I Orestes I End of Western Empire 475 CE 0 Ostrogoths o Theodoric Lecture Notes Fall of Rome Nicene Creed Arianism Andrea Bautista 1 Key Terms 0 Console the executive of the Roman Empire elected every four years Some ran on the platform to make Rome great again Two were elected every year 0 After the fall of the Western Roman Empire Boethius became Console under the Ostrogothic king Theodoric which was largely a ceremonial honor He was most proud on the day both his sons were named Console together 0 Andrea Bautista 2 In the fourth century Constantine 312 conquered Maxentius and became the king of the Western Empire He saw the Cairo and attributed his victory to Christianity By the end of the century with the Edict of Thessalonica the emperor Theodosius made Christianity the religion of the empire It became illegal not to be a Christian This didn t go over well in the countryside with the Paganscountry people In 380 Christianity became the official religion of the empire Theodosius ordered the closing of all temples extinguished the ame of the Temple of Vesta Theodosius took the Statue of Nike out of the Roman Senate Traditionalist thought this was the end of the world They ve offended the gods Arius was an elder of a Christian church in Alexandria Egypt and he heard his bishop talking about the relationship between God the Father and God the Son The bishop said they are two personae of one thing Arius thought that didn t make sense How could they be the same Father and Son Then Arius started teaching on his own that there was God the Father and God the Son and the Father had to come before the Son thus the Son had to be created by the Father Therefore beforehand he must have been God plain and simple That was strange and upsetting because that meant God wasn t always the Father and that means that Jesus Christ isn t one substance of the Father Who cares They did It was so intense an argument that people were throwing one another out of churches excommunicating each other sometimes with violence and it was such a problem that bishops came to Constantine saying they had to have a meeting with all the bishops throughout the empire to sort it out In 325 in a place called Nicaea they had a meeting Nicene CreedApostles Creed Followers of Arius Arians loose It was decided that the Father and Son were one substance In the original Creed it didn t say God the Father didn t precede the Son The Arians decided they could sign the Nicene Creed because it didn t say anything about the Father preceding the son therefore they could still be Arians and still be Christian This created a split in the church Eusebius was an arch bishop of the capital city Constantinople Eusebius was the one who eventually baptized Constantine on his death bed in 337 Heretic a person believing in or practicing religious heresy a person holding an opinion at odds with what is generally accepted Eusebius was an Arian and a heretic Therefore Constantine must have been a heretic as well since he was baptized by a heretic Thus Constantine was simultaneously a saint a god and a heretic Eusebius was trying to convert people to Christianity One of the persons there in Constantinople was a fellow named Uflla a Visigoth Goths were Germans Uflla s maternal grandparents were Greek and had been captured by the Visigoths Rome had invaded the territory of the Visigoths O 0 Andrea Bautista 3 Frequently in the ancient world when one conquered a people they took the sons usually the sons not the daughters of the leaving families and held them as hostages Also a tradition in the ancient world was to raise the hostages as their own children If the hostage s true parents rebelled they were killed Uflla was a Visigothic hostage who was converted to Arianism by Eusebius He became a real zealot He wanted then to convert Visigoths to Christianity He took the Bible and translated it to German He converted thousands upon thousands of Goths to Christianity In the fourth century these barbarian groups become Christians However they were also Arian heretics Barbarians and Veras O O 0 Where does the term barbarian come from Greek term barbaroi Onomatopoeia Greeks thought nonGreeks sounded stupid so they called them barbaroi gt barbarians When the Roman Empire conquered the East including Greece they absorbed all their culture They loved Greek culture but hated Greeks because they considered them to be cunning Never get into business with a Greekquot Romans called people outside the Roman Empire barbarians As they conquered they called the people barbarians The attitude toward barbarians was imprinted into the Roman psyche since 9 CE I Arminius a Goth from across the Rhines was an officer in the Roman Legions and was taken as a hostage to Rome He was raised as a Roman entered the Roman Legions and was trained as an officer I In 9 CE a man named Veras was a Roman commander of three Legions in Gaul I The Gauls were not a Germanic people They were relatively peaceful with large settlements and farms They were easy for Julius Caesar to conquer Their large estates produced everything from wheat to lime I The Gauls were occupied by the Romans I Germans from the opposite side of the Rhine River would frequently cross the river and raid Gaul settlements I Veras decided to cross the river and punish the Goths I Arminius real name Herman was a Goth and decided to desert before Veras was going to invade He went across the Rhine organized the local troops and knew that Veras was going to march 20000 people single file through the Teutoburg Forest I Arminius got all the erce violent warlike tall Germans to line up in the hill of the forest above the road and puts wagons in the front marsh on the other side and they left no escape They killed 20000 Legionnaires I Afterwards they mutilated the bodies sacrificed the Roman off1cers alive to their gods and chopped off Veras head and sent it back to Caesar Augustus I This left a negative impression of barbarians 0 King Herod the King of Israel at the time that Jesus was born died There was an insurrection by Jews against the Romans Andrea Bautista 4 o Veras went down to Syria to a place called Sephoras a capital town built on top of a hill in Galilee across the village from Nazareth Veras went down and razed the city and cruci ed cruci ed 2000 people on top of that hill Other Barbarian Groups 0 The Vandals came from the West and came across the Rhine through France In 406 CE it was so cold that the Rhine River froze solid and the Vandals walked over the river by the tens of thousands Vandals came through France into Spain and resided in Spain for a number of years before moving to North Africa 0 Visigoths Just above Greece were the Visigoths who came in 377 CE by the Danube River They were being pushed out by the Huns The Roman emperor in the East felt it was a good idea to have the Visigoths in the middle of the tension to act like a buffer The eastern emperor built massive refugee camps Visigoths stayed for about a year starving to death until they broke out and about 150 thousand Visigoths went to battle and won They headed south into Greece When they got into northern Greece there were heretics When they got to Greece they decimated traditional Greek temples Luckily they never got to Athens Visigoths went to Greece turned around went over the mountains and came into the western Roman empire into what is now Italy They said to the Romans we want land and the Romans said no Romans sent out Roman Legions to take care of the Barbarians August 24th 410 CE the City of Rome was sacked by the Visigoths by Alaric the leader of the Visigoths The Romans had to pay off Alaric in gold and silver The Visigoths headed south Alaric died so they turned around and went north France was the kingdom of the Visigoths Adrianople is where Valance was defeated The Vandals had marched across France set up a kingdom in Spain Then decided to cross into North Africa because North Africa was rich They set up a Vandal kingdom that lasted for over 100 years As they went across North Africa they conquered these little towns one of which was called Hippo It s where the famous bishop Augustin resided 429 Vandals laid siege to Hippo Augustin was writing The City of God Why Because in 410 when Alaric sacked Rome all the Roman people were like let s escape and a lot of them were coming to North Africa As soon as they got there they screamed Rome has been sacked by barbarians Whose fault was that Well Theodosius ordered the Statue of Nike to be taken out of the Roman senate and the ame to be extinguished Whose fault is it Christians It s their fault Augustin then wrote the book The City of God He said It s not the fault of Christianity It s the State It s Romans who have done it It s not the fault of God It may be apart of God s plan the end of the world Andre39a Bautista 5 o The Huns People were trying to get into the Roman Empire because of the Huns Huns were incredibly warlike like the Germans but unlike the Germans who had small settlements the Huns made their living by rape and murder essentially They conquered people and were nomadic They set up tent cities wherever they went Huns were incredibly effective warriors for a number of reasons First they had the hunnish saddle Most of the time cavalry didn t have saddles The Huns invented saddles with stirrups Second they had the hunnish bow It s called a re ex bow which had tremendous tension high velocity and it was said that a hunnish bowman could kill an opponent at 200 yards They ate largely meat They would cure the meat and put it under the saddle and ride on it which would eventually dry out and cure the meat for eating They would sweep into villages and annihilate people rape women take children Where did they come from Some thought they were nomadic people who threatened the Chinese empire Qin Empire They kept moving west When they hit existing Gothic people they pushed them west The Hunnish Empire went from the Rhine River to the Baltic Sea With an empire this big how do you provide They crossed the Danube and not only raided Roman settlements but extorted gold and silver from the Roman Empire Romans paid off the Huns The most notorious was Attila the Hun He was a very erce individual who killed his own brother One other thing about the Huns that induced fear at birth they tied a plank to the baby s face to make them at They thought a at face was impressive This scared people Roman Legions increasingly used barbarians in the officer corps o The Scirii The Scirii were aligned with the Huns Orestes was the chief lieutenant of Attila the Hun After Attila died on his wedding night of a hemorrhage and suffocated on his own blood there were disputes about who would be the leader of the Huns By the end of the century the Huns disappeared within 50100 years Orestes a lieutenant of Attila was brought into the Roman Legions and became under a Roman Emperor head of the Roman Legions He had a son and decided it would be good to get rid of the emperor and put his son on the throne as the emperor but he needed help in order to do this He got in touch with the King of the Scirii Odoacer He said help me kill the emperor and put my son on the throne and I ll give you 13 of Italy Odoacer agreed They assassinated the emperor and gave the son emperorship Odoacer said Give me 13 of Italy and Orestes replied I 0 Andrea Bautista 6 don t need you anymore Odoacer killed Orestes removed the son as emperor took the imperial robes and sent them to the Eastern Roman Emperor the Byzantine Emperor and said the Western Roman Empire is no more 476 CE end of the Western Roman Empire Eastern Roman Empire continues for another 1000 years Ostrogoths I King of Scirii was then also king of the Western Roman Empire I The Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno was suspicious of Odoacer and thought Odoacer was going to be politically independent I Zeno said I need people to go to Italy to conquer and overthrow Odoacer I In the court a man named Theodoric was a hostage trained in the Roman Legions He was an Ostrogoth Zeno approached Theodoric and says March on the formerly Western Roman Empire get rid of Odoacer and pledge your authority to me Theodoric then confronted Odoacer and went to war for 10 years Finally they have a peace conference 493 As soon as Odoacer got to the peace conference Theodoric cut his throat Then Theodoric was king of the Western Roman Empire but now they had an Ostrogothic king I There then existed tension between King of the Ostrogoths Theodoric and King of the Eastern Roman Empire I by 5161718 there was suspicion that the Eastern King was trying to overthrow Theodoric I There was a lot of suspicion in the court over who was loyal to Theodoric and who was a spy for the Eastern Empire That suspicion fell on Boethius Consolation of Philosophy 0 00000 lst chapter diagnosis of Boethius condition He is imprisoned 2nd chapter identification of his disease He suffers from fortune 3rd chapter looking at the purpose of human beings Achieve happiness 4th chapter looking at wickedness as an impediment to happiness 5th chapter the cure Boethius worked for Theodoric the King He was console then he became magistrate official He was head of the civil service head of administration He was supposed to carry out policies of the king He was a Patrician He came from an old welltodo family Intellectual philosopher translator Plato said in the Republic the best leader is a Philosopher King He felt that philosophers had a responsibility to be in politics Boethius was suspected of treason convicted thrown in jail and sentenced to death They took an iron band which was screwed to his head and tightened until the top of his head was deformed and then they beat him with a club till his head exploded Boethius wrote the Consolation of Philosophy while awaiting execution Basically Why bad things happen to good people Starts with him being comforted by the Muses
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