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Chapter 2

by: Layne

Chapter 2 PSYC 314 001

GPA 2.75

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About this Document

These notes cover what was on Quiz 1
Cognitive Basis of Behavior
Shannon Ross-Sheehy
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 314 001 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Shannon Ross-Sheehy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
8/24/16 Announcements Cognitive Neuroscience • Class time is: 3:25-4:50 Chapter 2 • state mandated to meet 150 min! • Leave a bit early (at own peril) or drop • ZAPS learning labs • Extended deadline to Monday Trial accounts available • Grade doesn’t automatically appear in Canvas • Canvas iOS and Android apps! (push notifications) • Syllabus adjustments… Brain Behavior Functions Capgras Syndrome • Imaging of brain activity • Recognize loved ones • Impairment after damage • But think they are impostors • People wit apgrassyndrome may think they were kidnapped (or worse) • May even see slight “defects” in ”imposter” 1 8/24/16 Capgras syndrome Insights from behavioral observations • YouTube video • Capgrasdelusion results from a conflict between • two facial recognition systems (or pathways) in the brain: • Perceptual (intact) • Emotional (disrupted) Insights from neuroimaging Insights from neuroimaging (cont) • Can produce structural3D images of the brain • Basic structure/shape/size • Defects (e.g., lesions, developmental abnormalities) • Neural insults (stroke, aneurism, trauma, anoxia) • And functionalimages of the brain • Which areas are active during rest • Which areas are active during some cognitive task 2 8/24/16 Amygdalar damage results in lack But why can’t they just “learn” of emotional response not to trust their perceptions? • There is more to it than just amygdalardamage • Damage to prefrontal cortex impairs reasoning, illogical thoughts not filtered out (also impaired in schizophrenia and during dreaming) • Factualand emotionalknowledge are dissociated Cognition requires some “parallel processing” •processed by different areas (e.g., face recognition) Cognitive neuroscience and • Lesion studies have been critical cognitive psychology are complementary… why? 3 8/24/16 Brain/behavior relations The brain is a complex system • 1 trillion neurons (nerve cells) • 10 thousand connections per neuron • 10 million billion connections • Knowledge is distributed among simple processing units Gage’s skull A reconstruction A portrait of Gage of the lesion About 3-4 lbs Parts of a Neuron Parts of a Neuron Dendrites Cell Body (Soma) Nucleus Presynaptic Axon Cell Axon Terminal Synapse PoCellnaptic 4 8/24/16 Information Transmission Information Transmission 1) Action potential(spike) travels down axon of presynapticneuron Presynaptic Neuron 2) Neurotransmitteris released into synaptic cleft 3) Neurotransmitter binds withr eceptoron postsynapticneuron Postsynaptic 4) Ions flow into or out of thep ostsynaptic cell, Neuron generating a postsynaptic potential 5) An excitatorypostsynaptic potential may cause Action potentials are “all or none” an action potential to be generated in the axon They do not get smaller as they travel down the axon 6) An inhibitorypostsynaptic potential may prevent e the cell from firinga spike When an axon splits, the action potential goes t down all branches, with no loss of size V Time Action Potentials Neurotransmission Action Potential Presynaptic Cell Synapse Synaptic Vesicles Transmitter Postsynaptic Molecules Receptors Cell Space between axon terminal and postsynaptic cell is called the “synaptic cleft” Action potential traveling down axon 5 8/24/16 Brain Cells Parts of the Brain Presynaptic neuron Postsynaptic neuron Brainstem Synapse Parts of the Brain The Cerebral Cortex • Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is a single, 6-layered sheet of neurons, approximately the size Grey Matter of a small pizza White Matter • To fit these sheets in a round head, they are crinkled up Corpus Callosum Each visible strip on the surface is called a “gyrus” Thalamus Each crease is called a “sulcus” (or “fissure”) Temporal Lobe Hippocampus Lateral Fissure Superior Temporal Gyrus Superior Temporal Sulcus 6 8/24/16 The Cerebral Cortex Fissure/sulcus cheat sheet • The cerebral hemispheres are divided into 4 lobes: Axes Division Connection Left-right Longitudinal fissuCorpus callosum Anterior commissure Anterior-posterior Central fissure N/A Frontal-temporal Lateral fissure Major Cortical Regions Somatosensory Motor Cortex Cortex "Association" Areas Auditory Cortex Visual Cortex 7


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