chapter 4 outline
chapter 4 outline BIOL 1110
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitrín Hall on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at University of Connecticut taught by Bernard Goffinet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Botany in Biology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Molecules of Life 41 Carbohydrates include sugars starches and cellulose Organic molecules primary compounds Carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids 0 Contain smaller amp simpler molecules that build larger amp more complex molecules that carry out structuralmetabolic functions Carbohydrates energy molecules structural components of plants animal nutrition 0 Carbon hydrogen oxygen n121 o Monosaccharides single sugar basic building blocks of carbs 36 carbons Glucose most common in plants C6 H12 06 BOTH g amp f provide energy for metabolic processes Fructose same formula fruit sugar different 3D structure 0 Disaccharides 2 sugars built with quot Shortterm energy storage Sucrose most common glucose amp fructose Dehydration synthesis hydrogen removed from fructose hydroxyl group from glucose left with sucrose single covalent bond between two oxygen and water 0 Polysaccharides many sugars built with quotquot Not watersoluble Longterm energy storage Formed by dehydration Structural components cellulose made of glucose so that every other is ipped 42 Lipids include fats and oils waxes phospholipids and steroids Lipids Store energy amp form protective surfaces Oilyinsoluble Mostly hydrogen and carbon except phospholipids 3 types 0 Fats oils waxes Energy storage more than carbs Glycerol 3C 3Hydroxyl I Fatty acids long CH2 chains ending in acidic carboxyl CH bonds store sunlight energy 0 Saturated all carbon have max number of hydrogen O 3 dehydration syntheses Insoluble because nonpolar o Phospholipids Glycerol backbone long fatty acid chain phosphate and polar molecule attached to glycerol Amphipathic Steroids Structurally different from other lipids 4 carbon rings with various side groups 43 Proteins are molecules amino acids Proteins 0 Store materials build movements transport 0 Complex organic of carbon hydrogen 0 Assembled from 0 Central amino group acidic COOH 20 that protein Hydrophobic basic When linked peptide bond Primary chain Secondary between I Alpha Within I Beta TABLE 42 Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids for Adult Humans Essential N onessential Histidine Alanine Isoleucine Asparagine Leucine Aspartic acid Lysine Arginine Methionine Cysteine Phenylalanine Glutamic acid T hreonine Glutamine Tryptophan Glycine Valine Proline Serine Tyrosine Monounsaturated 1 double bond between carbon Polyunsaturated more than 1 double bond ln cell membranes phosphate and polar molecules go toward water while fatty acids stay between phosphatepolar molecule layers large composed of structures perform materials compounds composed oxygen nitrogen sulfur amino acids carbon atom hydrogen With nitrogen NH2 carboxyl group side chain R there are determines properties of hydrophilic acidic water and a covalent CN are formed regular polypeptide hydrogen bonding amino acids helix anchor proteins cell membranes pleatedsheet elasticity O Tertiary covalent bonds between cysteine O Quaternary hemoglobin I CATALYST speeds chemical reaction without being used 0 Enzymes are essential for plant life I Regulate biochemical reactions I Only cellulase enzyme breaks down cellulose I Some require cofactors nonprotein components 0 Activation energy input energy needed to rearrange covalent bonds 0 Lower activation energy 0 Fit only one substrate reactant 44 DNA and RNA are nucleic acids composed of nucleotides Nucleic acids contain amp translate instructions for structures and functions of organisms 0 Carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus 0 Long chains of nucleotides 0 Form nucleic acid chains through dehydration between phosphate groups and sugars 0 ATP adenosine triphosphate main energy carrier I Ribose adenine 3 phosphate groups with energy in covalent bonds I ATPase removes phosphate from ATP by adding water ADP adenosine diphosphate I AMP adenosine monophosphate is formed when one more phosphate is removed 0 3 parts 5carbon sugar phosphate group P04 nitrogenrich base I Nitrogen rich bases single ring pyrimidine cytosine thymine uracil double ring purine adenine and guanine 0 DNA largest molecule holds genetic info genes 0 Sugar is deoxyribose O Nitrogenous bases A C G T O 2 strands of nucleic acids form double helix I Sides covalently bonded sugars and phosphates I Steps nitrogenous bases bonded by hydrogen 0 RNA copies amp translates info into proteins 0 Sugar is ribose O Nitrogenous bases A C G U 0 Mostly single strands of nucleic acid 0 Synthesis of proteins in new cells Table 41 The Major Groups of Molecules of Life Type Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Subtypes Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Fats oils Waxes Phospholipids Steroids Storage proteins Enzymes Long chain nucleic acids Single nucleotides 45 Plants produce a compounds Examples Glucose fructose Sucrose Starch Cellulose Corn oil Waxes on plant surfaces Phosphatidylcholine Di gitalin Zeatin in corn wheat gluten Sucrase rubisco Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA Ribonucleic acid RNA Adenosine triphos phate ATP Cyclic adenosine mo nophosphate CAMP Functions Energy molecules Short term storage main sugar transpr Energy storage Main structural component of plants Energy storage Reduce water loss deter insects and p Cell membranes Deter insects Energy storage Regulate biochemical reactions Storage of genetic information Translation of genetic information Energy carrier Intracellular messenger wide range of secondary Secondary compounds molecules produced by plants algae or fungi that aren t found in all species 0 Used for defense specialized structure reproduction Terpenes amp terpenoids 0 Repel insect pests O Carotene harvests light to prevent damage by excess photosynthesis 0 Sweet ower smells attract pollinators Phenolics 0 Antiseptic 0 Buildingblock structure that can be combined in various ways like in Terpenes O Absorb UV rays to protect plants from genetic damage 0 Protective tasteantimicrobial activity 0 Lignin phenolic polymer that gives wood strength and resists microbial attack Flavonoids 0 Color owers and fruits 0 Anthocyanin pigments Alkaloids 0 Used as medicines Over 12000 types All contain some nitrogen Toxic at high doses with potent effects on nervous system 0 O O O Stimulate people in low doses Chapter Wrapup Examine and Discuss Self Test 1 Which of the following is not a polysaccharide a starch b cellulose d pectins e locust bean gum At the molecular level the main difference between fats and waxes is a In fats a longchain carbon molecule replaces the glycerol portion b In waxes the fatty acids are always unsaturated d In fats the fatty acids are always unsaturated 3 What type of chemical bond anchors the tertiary structure of a protein a ionic bondsb disul de bridges c hydrogen bonds d peptide bonds 4 Which of the following is not found in a nucleotide of DNA a adenine b ribose c uracil d guaninee f both a and d What group of plant secondary compounds is known for the bright colors in fruits and owers a alkaloids c phenolics d terpenes Applying Concepts 1 What chemical reaction links together the subunits of all four basic types of primary organic molecules How many of these reactions must take place to assemble each of the following molecules a a disaccharide b an oil c a polypeptide with four amino acids and d a nucleic acid nine nucleotides long 0 Dehydration syntheses a 1 b 3 c 3 d 8 A robotic spacecraft lands on Europa one of the large moons ofJupiter in the nottoodistant future It scoops up a sample of surface ices and delivers it to a chemical laboratory Along with water the chemical lab reports the following formulas back to Earth C4H804 C5H1005 C3H5OH3 HZNCHCHZSHCOOH What will you tell the news media that the robot has found on Europa 2 glucose molecules 1 glycerol 1 amino acid Starch and cellulose are both polysaccharides but the bonds that bind their subunits together are different How does this difference relate to the functions these two polysaccharides perform in plants Cellulose present in cell walls structure makes it difficult to break down Starch stores energy in glucose that is released when broken down
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