chapter 5 outline
chapter 5 outline BIOL 1110
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitrín Hall on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at University of Connecticut taught by Bernard Goffinet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Botany in Biology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Cells 51 Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells 0 Cell size maximizes surface area as cell size increases SAV ratio decreases Unicellular bodies one celled organisms Most bacteria and archaea many protists some fungi Multicellular bodies many cells 0 Large enough to see 0 One or more types of tissue coherent groups of cells with similar structuresfunctions Tissues group to form organs stems roots leaves 53 Two major types of cells are eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells All cells 0 Contain outer cell plasma membrane internal cytoplasm DNA and ribosomes Prokaryotic cells simple cells found in bacteria amp archaea 0 DNA lies Within cytoplasm Eukaryotic cells more complex cells that contain a nucleus and other organelles 0 DNA is in nucleus Nucleus endomembrane system of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies cytoskeleton of protein fibers motor proteins 0 Most have mitochondria sites of chemical energy transfer peroxisomes protect cytoplasm 0 Nucleus DNA storage 0 Nuclear envelope 2 membranes that enclose the nucleoplasm interior of nucleus 0 Cytoplasmic ribosomes are constructed inside nucleoli 0 Nuclear pores allow nucleoplasm communication throughout cell 0 Protein and nuclear DNA form chromosomes collectively chromatin 0 Endomembrane system 0 Endomembranes phospholipid membranes embedded With proteins Within cytoplasm 0 Connected to nuclear envelope O Endoplasmic reticulum ER network of attened membrane sacs amp their vesicles 39 Smooth ER constructs fatty acids and phospholipids where toxins are broken down I Rough ER covered with ribosomes that produce proteins 0 Golgi apparatus producemodifydistribute cell materials 39 Contains Golgi bodies of stacked cisternae membranes I Materials move through cisternae in an orderly sequence of chemical modifications I Golgi enzymes modify sugar chains l Golgi bodies manufacture pectins and hemicelluloses to form cell wall I Products are released in distribution vesicles at the end of cisternae 0 Cytoskeleton amp motor proteins generate movement 0 Cytoplasmic streaming rapid cycling of cytoplasm in cells 0 3 protein fibers hollow microtubules thinner microfilaments intermediate filaments provide structural support 0 Motor proteins 0 Interact with microtubulesmicrofilaments to produce movement 0 Kinesin steady movement microtubules 0 Dynein sliding motion microtubules O Myosin fast movement microfilaments 0 Essential for cytoplasmic streaming and cell division 0 Flagella and cilia extensions that allow cells to swim 0 Mitochondria sites of chemical energy transformation 0 Cristae inner membrane folds provide large SA 0 Watery matrix contains soluble enzymes DNA ribosomes bacteria 0 Peroxisomes contain sets of protective enzymes but have one membrane 0 Glyoxysomes transform storage lipids into sugar energy Cell membrane defines cytoplasm s outer limit 0 Phospholipids proteins other 0 Communicationtransportation of materials 0 Selectively permeable 0 Receptor proteins bind to chemical messengers to perceive environmental information 0 Transport proteins make up 5075 of membrane selective permeability carrier Channel pump 0 Osmosis movement of water across cell membrane according to relative concentration of solutions inside amp outside cell 0 Solutes don t pass through Diffusion movement of substances from areas of high to low concentration Osmotic balance isotonic Outside solution is hypotonic to cell if it s less concentrated than inside Contractile vacuoles accumulateexpel excess water Plasmolysis water leaves and cytoplasm shrinks outside solution is hypertonic to cell 0 Halophytes tolerate salty environments 00000 0 Exocytosis transport of materials out of cells by enclosing them in a sphere of membrane vesicle plant roots use to secrete polysaccharide 0 Endocytosis reversed exocytosis entry of nitrogenfixing bacteria into legume roots 0 Phagotrophy ingest food amp other small particles evolutionary development of mitochondria and plastids Cytoplasm watery solution containing cell structures Ribosomes protein synthesis machinery 0 Composed of RNA 54 Plant cells have the general features of eukaryotic cells and additional components Plants cells 0 Celluloserich cell wall outside cell membrane 0 Provide support and protection 0 Cellulose carbohydrate polymer held together by other carbs and proteins 0 Noncellulose components polysaccharides and proteins Hemicellulose binds cellulose brils Pectin combines with calcium and water to make gel matrix 0 Plants have one primary wall until they nish growing when a secondary wall forms 0 Plasmodesmata cytoplasmic channels that penetrate amp connect cell walls control access 0 Central vacuole watery uid surrounded by a membrane 0 Takes up most of cell volume 0 Maintains water pressure turgor pressure 0 Enclosed by single membrane tonoplast accumulates ions and other substances 0 Plastids photosynthetic organelles o Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll thylakoids arranged in stacks stroma DNA amp ribosomes 0 Sites of aminofatty acid production 0 Starch formation 0 Amyloplasts nongreen starchrich plastids containing few thylakoids can be transformed into sugar for energy 0 Chromoplasts nongreen pigmented plastids of owers and fruits Chapter Wrapup Examine and Discuss Self Test 1 Describe several ways in which prokaryotic cells are similar to eukaryotic cells and several ways in which they differ 0 Both have DNA ribosomes cytoplasm plasma membrane 0 Prokaryotes don t have defined organelles While eukaryotes do Explain what is meant by hypertonic isotonic and hypotonic then describe some ways in which animal and plant cells cope with hypertonic or hypotonic environments 0 Hyper solution outside cell is more concentrated than inside HYpotonic opposite Name the two major components of the cellular endomembrane system and explain what functions each serves 0 Within cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum network of attened membrane sacs amp vesicles that produce fatty acids and phosphoipids where toxins are broken down ribosomes produce proteins in rough ER Golgi apparatus produce pectins and hemiceuoses in Golgi bodies to form cell walls modify and distribute materials through cisternae Describe the functions of the following compounds that occur in plant cell walls a cellulose b hemiceuose c pectin d caose and e ignin a Carbohydrate polymer that provides structure and protection micro brils of molecular ceuose are extensively hydrogen bonded b Binds cellulose brils c Combines with calcium and water to make gel matrix d Polysaccharide cement that plugs damaged plasmodesmata to prevent pathogens from entering and cytoplasm from leaving e Water cannot pass through prevents water loss supports strengthening of wood List three types of plastids that occur in plant cells of various types and indicate their typical colors and functions Chloroplasts green contains chlorophyll amp double membrane performs photosynthesis Amyloplasts nongreen starchrich plastids that can be transformed into sugar for energy 0 Chromoplasts nongreen pigmented plastids of owers and fruits Applying Concepts 2 Using information provided in this chapter about structures present in all cells features that distinguish eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cells and structures found only in plant cells indicate which structures likely arose rst and which cell components appeared most recently 0 Original 0 Recent lf life were to be discovered on an extraterrestrial planet why would such life be unlikely to consist of cells the size of a beach ball Small cells maximize surface area so max amount of materials can go in and out SAV ratio decreases as cell size increases so a large cell would have more trouble importingexporting materials fast enough to survive
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