chapter 8 outline
chapter 8 outline BIOL 1110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitrín Hall on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at University of Connecticut taught by Bernard Goffinet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Botany in Biology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Cell Division 81 Cell division and the cell cycle Cell cycle orderly sequence of events that constitute the life history of a cell Cell division parent cell divides duplicated components between two daughter cells 82 Division in bacteria archaea mitochondria and plastids occurs by binary ssion Prokaryotes o Binary ssion asexual reproduction quotbreaking into two partsquot Chromosome attached to inward fold of membrane Replicated chromosomes attach in 2 places Cell elongation starts and new inward folds form Elongation reaches twice original size and new septum forms 0 2 new daughter cells takes about 20min Doublemembrane bound organelles Bacteria and archaea haploid cells N Arrangement of bacterial DNA highly condensed and twisted back on itself in supercoiled arrangement 83 Eukaryotic cells have separate processes of nuclear and cytoplasmic division OOOO Eukaryotes Diploid 2N cells contain pairs of homologous chromosomes 0 DNA is condensed into chromosomes instead of supercoiled wound around proteins 1 packed into bers 2 coiled 3 and condensed into chromosomes 4 Somatic division cell division leads to an increase in size of organism or to replace wornoutdamaged cells daughter cells are identical to parent 0 Cell cycle interphase M phase includes mitosis and cytokinesis o lnterphase long period of active growth amp synthesis of cell components 61 phase synthesis of molecules and structures 0 Cell increases in size 0 Synthesis of enzyme membranes and ribosomes Organelle reproduction Assembly of microtubules which move to chromosomes Nucleus moves to center of cell Phragmosome formation plate along which cell will divide S phase synthesis of DNA DNA is uncondensed to allow replication Replication results in 2 chromatids for every chromosome Chromatids are attached at centromere 62 phase completes preparations for cell division Protein microtubule and actin synthesis increases 0 Nuclear envelope surrounds chromosomes during cell division forms barrier to create separation of chromosomes between daughter cells 0 Stage 1 nuclear division mitosis nucleus duplicates all genetic material in its chromosomes and then divides the duplicated chromosomes equally between 2 daughter cells Prophase chromosomes condense until they appear as sister chromatids Centromere binds chromatid to mitotic spindle composition of microtubules that aids in the separation and movement of sister chromatids into daughter nuclei Nuclear envelope disintegrates Metaphase chromosomes align on equator of mitotic spindle Each chromatid develops a special protein complex kinetochore at centromere Kinetochores lock onto plus ends of 3050 microtubules Chromatids align along spindle equator amp are ready to separate Anaphase sister chromatids separate all at once Each chromatid splits in 2 1 chromatid of every pair moves to a pole requires ATP Kinetochore moves up microtubule as tubulin falls apart Ends when chromatids reach opposite poles Telophase chromosomes become indistinct New nuclear envelope forms around each set Spindle bers disappear Chromosomes uncoil to enter interphase again Mitosis ends as cytokinesis begins 0 Stage 2 cytoplasmic division all cellular material outside of nucleus divides equally into 2 daughter cells Starts with formation of phragmoplast system of microtubules and laments composed of actin and myosin functions to construct new cell wall Secretory vesicles from Golgi body form cell plate which continues to form as phragmoplast microtubules disappear from the center and form a circle around the edge of the developing plate which is expanding outward Vesicles fuse to become new cell membranes contents form daughter cell walls Bits of smooth ER caught between fusing vesicles form plasmodesmata Chapter Wrapup Examine and Discuss SelfTest 1 Mitosis as a process of cell division is found in which of the following organisms a protists b archaeac multicellular eukaryotes d bacteriae both b and df both a and c Which of the statements best describes events during anaphase of mitosis a The chromosomes decondense nuclear membranes reform and a cell plate begins to develop between two daughter nuclei b Condensed pairs of chromatids become attached to spindle microtubules and move toward the equator of the spindle c Sister chromatids separate and move quickly towards op posite poles of the dividing cell d Microtubules appear and chromatids slowly condense out of granular material visible at the light microscope level Anaphase is set in motion by the activation of the anaphase promoting complex APC Which of the following is not a function of the APC a release the enzyme separase from its inhibitor to cleave cohesin at the chromatid centromeres b deactivate and degrade CycA and CycB c activate the E2F promoter complex d deactivate and degrade CDKA and CDKB WEE1 is an inhibitory protein that operates at which of the three cell cycle checkpoints a GZIM phase checkpointb GllS phase checkpointc The spindle assembly checkpoint The plant hormone cytokinin propels plant cells through which cell cycle checkpoints a 615 phase checkpointb GZIM phase checkpointc Spindle assembly checkpoint d Both a and b The cell cycle inhibitory proteins KRPs and lCK12 are both produced in response to which plant hormone a abscisic acid ABA b cytokininc auxin d gibberellin 7 Which of the following is not a function of the cohesin complex a Binding sister chromatids together up to anaphase b Attaching sister chromatids to the spindle microtubules c Movement of chromosomes toward opposite poles of the dividing cell d DNA replication e Repair of doublestranded DNA breaks Applying Concepts 1 What is the basic accomplishment of mitosis with regard to the genetic material of the cell As discussed in the chapter opening vinblastine is used to treat certain cancers of the lymphatic system In light of the nding that this drug interferes with the assembly of microtubules suggest a mechanism by which vinblastine might slow the growth of these cancerous tumors Using a highquality light microscope to examine highly active mitotic tissue such as the tip of an onion root suggest a way to determine the portion of the cell cycle that these cells spend in interphase and in each phase of mitosis
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