chapter 9 outline
chapter 9 outline BIOL 1110
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitrín Hall on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at University of Connecticut taught by Bernard Goffinet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Botany in Biology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Plant Structure Growth and Development 91 Plant structural variation is ecologically and economically important 0 Growth is the process by which the number and size of body cells increase 0 Plant organs stems roots leaves 0 Development is the process by which a singlecelled reproductive structure is transformed into a multicellular adult body 0 Growth amp specialization 92 Plant bodies are composed of organ systems organs tissues and specialized cells 0 Organ systems gt organs gt tissues gt cells 0 Organs o Stems are fundamental organ 0 Occur within organ systems Shoot system above ground Root system under ground Buds owers fruits seeds composed of more than one organ Flowers amp branch buds annual 1 year biennial 2 years perennial gt2 years 0 Composed of tissues whose cells are linked by narrow cytoplasmic plasmodesmata Related cells result from mitotic division from precursor cells Differ in activities of speci c genes amp display distinctive structure Symplastic continuity cytoplasms are continuous for chemical communication Proteins messenger RNA s viruses travel via plasmodesmata Primary plasmodesmata formed during cytokinesis building of cell wall Secondary plasmodesmata formed as enzymes degrade cell wall Specialized cells Parenchyma simple tissues composed of parenchyma cells starch storage enzymes for morphine ability to divide Collenchyma simple tissue beneath epidermis exible support unevenly thickened walls of pectin Sclerenchyma sclereids and bers thick cell walls throughout to resist damage nut shells etc o All contain same genetic info differ in genes expressed Arise by differentiation 0 Cells develop distinctive structures and funcUons o Asymmetric cell division nonuniform distribution of cytoplasmic components creates different cells 0 Difference in cell position exposed to different chemical environments Secretory cells produce secondary compounds Trichomes spiky structures to protect leaves 93 Plant bodies grow by producing new cells and by cell enlargement Plant mitosis regional locales Animal mitosis diverse locales Apical primary meristems 0 Generate lengthincreasing primary tissues 0 Leaves new roots amp stems primary tissues 0 Dermal tissues form epidermis cover all exposed plant parts Stomata form Develops from protoderm just below apical meristem o lnnermost vascular tissues transport water minerals and organic compounds Produced by procambium in apical meristem 0 Ground tissues Between dermal amp conducting tissues Pith Produced by ground meristem Shoot architecture based upon alternating nodesinternodes 0 New stem tissue young leaves axillary buds potential branches 0 Node region of a stem with leavesbranches o lnternodes in between 0 Plant height increases by addition of nodes cell division at meristem amp elongation of internodes Secondary meristems produce wood amp bark Growth regions vascular and cork cambiums 0 Wood and inner bark produced by vascular Outer bark old woodinner bark cork cambium Increase girth in stems and roots Cell expansion 0 Increasing cytoplasm making proteins replicating organelles Uptake of water into central vacuole see essay 51 0 Cell wall expansion expansins unlock polysaccharide bonds while aquaporins increase water uptake 94 Plants acquire polarity during development from zygotes or small pieces Apicalbasal polarity Unequal cell division begins with zygote and embryo Manifested by upper shoot and lower root systems Radial symmetry 0 Phyllotaxy Begins with development of protoderm cap Leaves owers can have bilateral symmetry 0 Adult plants have more organs than embryos 0 Adjust leafroot surface area for collection of light water minerals Possess intermediate growth instead of determinate growth Plant bodies develop from Zygotes 0 Single cell fusion of egg and sperm 0 Develop into multicellular embryos by mitosis 0 Sexual fusion of 2 gametes 0 Develop sporophytes sporeproducing Spores cell that can develop into a multicellular adult body without having rst fused with another reproductive cell 0 Develop gametophytes gameteproducing 0 Transition between sporophytes and gametophytes involves changes in chromosome numbers because of meiosis Rely on food from sporophyte Excised tissue Asexual reproduction 0 Rapid spread of organisms offspring Chapter Wrapup Examine and Discuss Self Test 1 What are the three basic plant organs Give several examples of more complex plant structures that are composed of more than one plant organ Roots stems leaves buds owersfruitsseeds can be composed of more than one Distinguish among annual biennial and perennial plants Annual live for one growing season Biennial live for two years Perennial live for more than two years How do primary plasmodesmata form and what is their function They form between sibling cells They are composed of ER and proteins that regulate lter passage of materials Distinguish primary meristem and secondary meristems Which increases plant length Which increases plant girth Primary length Secondary girth By what process are plant cells able to expand that is not typical of animal cells Plant cells expand by intermediate instead of determinate growth Animal embryos have same number and types of organs as adult form of their species Discuss the relative abilities of plants and animals to reproduce asexually Most plants can reproduce asexually Most animals cannot Applying Concepts 1 Compare the sizes of sporophytes and gametophytes of bryophytes ferns and owering plants Bryophyte sporophyte is small amp grows on bigger maternal gametophyte Fern sporophyte is leafy stage while gametophytes are individual leaves Flowering sporophytes are visible owers fewcelled nongreen gametophytes develop within ower tissues on leafy green sporophyte stage amp rely on sporophytes 2 Which would be easier to accomplish Generating clones of a valuable plant or cloning an animal Plant
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