The Science of Psychology Week 2 and 3 Notes
The Science of Psychology Week 2 and 3 Notes PSY P-101
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meegan Voss on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY P-101 at Indiana University taught by Irene Vlachos-Weber in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
The Science of Psychology I. Why Science? Prisoner of Silence Video Notes on paper II. Defining Psychology A. Psyche (Greek) = breath of life 1. Soul/spirit 2. Loose translation = “mind” B. Logos (ology) Study of; knowledge = study C. Original definition: Study of the mind D. Today’s definition: Scientific study of mental or behavior processes Humans and animals III. Contemporary Perspectives: use chart provided Contemporary Perspectives Perspective Subject Matter Behavior explained by: Biological Physiological basis of behavior Electrical, chemical events inside the Brain (“nature” part of things) body (brain and neuroscience), neurons Chemical (neurotransmitter) imbalance are electrical and when “on fire” affect Ex: dopamine (movement pleasure), decreased how you feel levels of serotonin (mood) Can fix it by taking meds to increase serotonin Behavioral Effects of environment on overt, Present stimulus observable behavior (“nurture”) response, rewards and punishments; Learning stressors triggered OCD behavior, Environment behavior is rewarded by washing hands, Gale’s OCD – caused by the birth of her child behavior occurs again which leads to Exposure + response prevention (expose what is feared) continue handwashing Thought and mental processes Mental processes: Cognitive remembering, reasoning, Memory People who are depressed has dysfunctional kill me.” thoughts Dealing with thinking Dysfunctional thinking Psychoanalytic Unconscious determinants of behavior Unconscious processes (thoughts, “Freud” focuses on the unconscious 2 drives that push your behavior: eros attitudes, behavior) of which we are Unconscious – you don’t realize what is (sex), destruction unaware, traumatic childhood (got happening thoughts when younger when sex was dirty) “psyche” – Id = “it” (it is the baby (the satan), when you want it, you want it now, impulsive, has the sex drive, at war with superego), superego – conscience morals, values (the angel on your shoulder) (the id and superego are mediated by the ego), ego = mediator (tries to balance out the two) Germs = afraid of sexual desires Humanistic Obsessive Compulsive Disorder an obsession is a thought, impulse or image in your mind and at sometime, youre going to experience one and you wont like it and it makes you anxious Ex: aggressive (worried they might hurt someone), symmetry (things are even) Compelled to do something, you feel like you need to do it or they will be anxious or something bad will happen, it’s a behavior you do because of an obsession Two parts of OCD – obsession and compulsion Ex: obsessed with germs, compelled to clean Some have the impulse to do something but don’t do it Gale’s OCD video – when someone does something in a ritualistic way, if they do it wrong and different than usual, they will do it again until it’s the same as their ritual, obsessed with germs, compelled to clean, interferes with her functioning and her relationships, the catalyst of the OCD was her having a child and worried about her daughter and germs, in order for fiancé and daughter to touch her they must shower and do ritualistic activities, house is messy because it’s contaminated so she won’t touch it, people with OCD aren’t psychotic, it’s an anxiety disorder, dangerous in their head but not really dangerous, she has insight and when you have this you know you have a problem, dillusion – false belief (not OCD, lack insight, schitzifrenia, dimensia), go back to chart: typed in red IV. Psychology as a profession A. Clinical & Counseling = 45 % Finding cause, prevention of psych disorders, this more applied, do things where they are actually working with people B. Academic Psychologists 1. Basic – research contributing to knowledge 2. Applied – solving a practical problem (ex: teenage pregnancy, help design a plan to help reduce this) (are dare programs helpful? No because the people involved C. Psychology v. Psychiatry 1. PhD: academic degree, can’t prescribe drugs, doctor of philosophy, more of a psychological perspective, psychologists 2. MD: medical degree, doctors of medicine, can prescribe drugs, coming from a more physical perspective, psychiatrists V. Defining Science A. Science: 1. 1 way of answering questions about phenomena, is methodical 2. Not the only way to answer questions religion philosophy B. 3 characteristics 1. Systematic empiricism: a. Systematic – structured, methodical b. Empiricism – relying on observation (using your senses), if you can’t observe, then measure, not scientific 2. Public: information is shared, can be replicated (has to be reproduced) (if you have a find and no one else has that same find, that’s a problem, it must be founded more than once), published results/research 3. Solvable problems: questions can potentially be answered given currently available techniques (ex: Do people have souls?) (real cause of autism, solved by technological science) C. Data base = behavior 1. 2. D. Goals of psychology: 1. Description a. Systematically note observable characteristics (animals vs. people, we can ask people what they’re doing but can’t do it with animals) (people aren’t always honest because they are hiding what they are truly like or they want to present themselves a certain way) (if you note things, you become aware of things you wouldn’t really notice beforehand) b. Describe what occurred c. Precise: use numbers, we must be able to replicate d. Use operational definition: terms of measurable, observable event, using a definite you can use and operate with, whatever behavior you’re interested in you must be able to measure something useful, behavior = hunger 4 hours since last food was consumed (what does hunger mean), it’s important to define because they must be able to replicate and we are all on the same page 2. Explanation a. Understanding the conditions under which it occurs b. Confirm explanations by ruling out other possible explanations c. Why it occurred Panic Attack Video Biological: low levels of serotonin Cog: “I’m going to panic!” (the more you think about something like this, it’ll happen Behavioral: Stimulus (store) panic 3. Prediction – when it is likely to occur a. Specify conditions under which a behavior/event is likely to occur b. Probabilistic: more likely than not to occur When Gene goes to the grocery store, she is more likely to panic 4. Control a. Apply a principle or change a condition to prevent (we want to prevent gene’s attacks) unwanted occurrences or bring about desired outcomes (treatment) b. Ex: therapy to prevent panic attacks or to treat depression c. Panic control treatment *When people have panic attacks, they are sensitive to their own physical symptoms (dizziness, sweatiness) They will expose themselves to the physical symptoms to lead to them realizing things can happen but nothing bad will come of it If something that is supposed to prevent things doesn’t work, then why still use it? For the “it” factor, no better alternative, wanting to believe it will work VI. Steps of the Scientific Method A. Answer ?s re: behavior Does violence in media lead to aggressive behavior? B. 5 steps: 1. Observation: a. Study event as it naturally occurs b. Video of children playing videogames Boys: yelling, pushing, calling each other names, messing with controls, laughing, some hitting, aggressive (what does this mean?), boys do more physical aggression Girls: kicking, pushing, pulling hair, name calling, complaining, weren’t really paying attention to the game while the boys were playing, relational aggression 2. Theory: a. A set of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations b. “Engaging in pretend violence leads to reallife aggressive behavior” (exposure or engaging) 3. Hypothesis: specific direction a. A prediction that can be tested (must be measured) re: relationship between 2 (or more) variables (what you think is going to happen) (I believe that x y) b. “Children who play violent videogames will display aggressive behavior” c. Operationally define “aggressive” Physical contact – causes harm, unwanted, hit with force Verbal – unwanted, hurtful words said in a harsh tone of voice 4. Choose a method of research: a. Cause and effect: experiment Do violent games cause aggressive behavior Does x cause y b. Describe relationships: correlation ^ VVG ^ Aggressive
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