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The Science of Psychology Week 2 and 3 Notes

by: Meegan Voss

The Science of Psychology Week 2 and 3 Notes PSY P-101

Marketplace > Indiana University > Psychlogy > PSY P-101 > The Science of Psychology Week 2 and 3 Notes
Meegan Voss
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These notes cover 2 weeks worth of information. This will be very helpful and easy to read.
Introductory Psychology
Irene Vlachos-Weber
Class Notes




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meegan Voss on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY P-101 at Indiana University taught by Irene Vlachos-Weber in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
The Science of Psychology I. Why Science?  Prisoner of Silence Video Notes on paper II. Defining Psychology  A. Psyche (Greek) = breath of life 1. Soul/spirit 2. Loose translation = “mind” B. Logos (ology) Study of; knowledge = study  C. Original definition: Study of the mind D. Today’s definition: Scientific study of mental or behavior processes  Humans and animals  III. Contemporary Perspectives: use chart provided  Contemporary Perspectives Perspective Subject Matter Behavior explained by: Biological Physiological basis of behavior  Electrical, chemical events inside the  Brain (“nature” part of things)  body (brain and neuroscience), neurons  Chemical (neurotransmitter) imbalance  are electrical and when “on fire” affect  Ex: dopamine (movement pleasure), decreased how you feel levels of serotonin (mood) Can fix it by taking meds to increase serotonin Behavioral Effects of environment on overt,  Present stimulus observable behavior (“nurture”) response, rewards and punishments;  Learning  stressors triggered OCD behavior,  Environment  behavior is rewarded by washing hands,  Gale’s OCD – caused by the birth of her child behavior occurs again which leads to  Exposure + response prevention (expose what  is feared) continue handwashing Thought and mental processes Mental processes:  Cognitive remembering, reasoning, Memory  People who are depressed has dysfunctional  kill me.” thoughts Dealing with thinking Dysfunctional thinking  Psychoanalytic Unconscious determinants of behavior Unconscious processes (thoughts,  “Freud” focuses on the unconscious  2 drives that push your behavior: eros  attitudes, behavior) of which we are  Unconscious – you don’t realize what is  (sex), destruction unaware, traumatic childhood (got  happening thoughts when younger when sex was  dirty) “psyche” – Id = “it” (it is the baby (the satan),  when you want it, you want it now, impulsive,  has the sex drive, at war with superego),  superego – conscience morals, values (the  angel on your shoulder) (the id and superego  are mediated by the ego), ego = mediator (tries to balance out the two) Germs = afraid of sexual desires Humanistic Obsessive Compulsive Disorder­ an obsession is a thought, impulse or image in your  mind and at sometime, youre going to experience one and you wont like it and it makes  you anxious  Ex: aggressive (worried they might hurt someone), symmetry (things are even) Compelled to do something, you feel like you need to do it or they will be anxious or  something bad will happen, it’s a behavior you do because of an obsession Two parts of OCD – obsession and compulsion  Ex: obsessed with germs, compelled to clean Some have the impulse to do something but don’t do it Gale’s OCD video – when someone does something in a ritualistic way, if they do it  wrong and different than usual, they will do it again until it’s the same as their ritual,  obsessed with germs, compelled to clean, interferes with her functioning and her  relationships, the catalyst of the OCD was her having a child and worried about her  daughter and germs, in order for fiancé and daughter to touch her they must shower and  do ritualistic activities, house is messy because it’s contaminated so she won’t touch it,  people with OCD aren’t psychotic, it’s an anxiety disorder, dangerous in their head but  not really dangerous, she has insight and when you have this you know you have a  problem, dillusion – false belief (not OCD, lack insight, schitzifrenia, dimensia), go back  to chart: typed in red IV. Psychology as a profession  A. Clinical & Counseling = 45 % Finding cause, prevention of psych disorders, this more  applied, do things where they are actually working with  people B. Academic Psychologists 1. Basic – research contributing to knowledge 2. Applied – solving a practical problem (ex: teenage  pregnancy, help design a plan to help reduce this) (are  dare programs helpful? No because the people involved C. Psychology v. Psychiatry 1. PhD: academic degree, can’t prescribe drugs, doctor of philosophy, more of a psychological perspective,  psychologists  2. MD: medical degree, doctors of medicine, can  prescribe drugs, coming from a more physical  perspective, psychiatrists  V. Defining Science A. Science: 1. 1 way of answering questions about phenomena, is  methodical  2. Not the only way to answer questions  religion  philosophy  B. 3 characteristics 1. Systematic empiricism: a. Systematic – structured, methodical  b. Empiricism – relying on observation (using your  senses), if you can’t observe, then measure, not  scientific    2. Public: information is shared, can be replicated (has to be reproduced) (if you have a find and no one  else has that same find, that’s a problem, it must be  founded more than once), published  results/research 3. Solvable problems: questions can potentially be  answered given currently available techniques (ex:  Do people have souls?) (real cause of autism,  solved by technological science) C. Data base = behavior 1. 2. D. Goals of psychology: 1. Description  a. Systematically note observable characteristics  (animals vs. people, we can ask people what they’re doing but can’t do it with animals) (people aren’t  always honest because they are hiding what they  are truly like or they want to present themselves a  certain way) (if you note things, you become aware  of things you wouldn’t really notice beforehand) b. Describe what occurred c. Precise: use numbers, we must be able to  replicate d.  Use operational definition: terms of measurable,  observable event, using a definite you can use and  operate with, whatever behavior you’re interested in you must be able to measure something useful,  behavior = hunger  4 hours since last food was  consumed (what does hunger mean), it’s  important to define because they must be able  to replicate and we are all on the same page 2. Explanation a. Understanding the conditions under which it  occurs b. Confirm explanations by ruling out other possible  explanations c. Why it occurred Panic Attack Video Biological: low levels of serotonin  Cog: “I’m going to panic!” (the more you think about  something like this, it’ll happen Behavioral: Stimulus (store)  panic   3. Prediction – when it is likely to occur a. Specify conditions under which a behavior/event  is likely to occur b. Probabilistic: more likely than not to occur When Gene goes to the grocery store, she is more  likely to               panic 4. Control a. Apply a principle or change a condition to  prevent (we want to prevent gene’s attacks)  unwanted occurrences or bring about desired  outcomes (treatment) b. Ex: therapy to prevent panic attacks or to treat  depression c. Panic control treatment *When people have panic attacks, they are  sensitive to their own physical symptoms  (dizziness, sweatiness) They will expose themselves to the physical  symptoms to lead to them realizing things can  happen but nothing bad will come of it  If something that is supposed to prevent things  doesn’t work, then why still use it? For the “it”  factor, no better alternative, wanting to believe it  will work  VI. Steps of the Scientific Method  A. Answer ?s re: behavior Does violence in media lead to aggressive behavior? B. 5 steps: 1. Observation: a. Study event as it naturally occurs b. Video of children playing videogames Boys: yelling, pushing, calling each other names,  messing with controls, laughing, some hitting, aggressive (what does  this mean?), boys do more physical aggression Girls: kicking, pushing, pulling hair, name calling,  complaining, weren’t really paying attention to the game while the  boys were playing, relational aggression  2. Theory:  a. A set of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations b. “Engaging in pretend violence leads to real­life  aggressive behavior” (exposure or engaging) 3. Hypothesis: specific  direction a. A prediction that can be tested (must be  measured) re: relationship between 2 (or more)  variables (what you think is going to happen) (I  believe that x  y) b. “Children who play violent videogames will  display aggressive behavior” c. Operationally define “aggressive” Physical contact – causes harm, unwanted, hit with  force Verbal – unwanted, hurtful words said in a harsh  tone of voice 4. Choose a method of research: a. Cause and effect: experiment Do violent games cause aggressive behavior  Does x cause y  b. Describe relationships: correlation  ^ VVG      ^ Aggressive 


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