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Political science 201. Ch. 2 notes

by: Natalee Stanton

Political science 201. Ch. 2 notes 201

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These are notes from the PowerPoint and professor Darmofal lecture.
Political Science 201
David Darmofal
Class Notes
political science
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 201 at University of South Carolina taught by David Darmofal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 175 views.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Political Science 201 – Chapter 2 Notes  Constructing a Government: The Founding and the Constitution The First Founding  - There was a variety of interests in colonial America  - They included: o New England merchants  o Southern planters o Royalists o Shopkeepers, artisans, and laborers o Small farmers British taxes and colonial interests - Beginning in the 1750’s the British crown began imposing a series of modest taxes  on the colonist, in part to pay some of the costs of imperial defense - The particular types of taxes – levies on stamps and commercial goods, like sugar  and molasses­ caused several of the colonial interests to begin to organize against the crown  - This started no taxation without representation  Political strife and the radicalizing of colonist - A series of provocative acts and counteract radicalized the colonists and led to the  Declaration of Independence  o Boston tea party 1773 o  First continental congress 1774 o  Lexington and concord 1775 o Second continental congress 1776 - This is the collective action principle in action  The Declaration of Independence - All men are created equal - Governments derive their legitimacy form the consent of the governed - Declares that when a government no longer serves the needs of the people, the  people have a right to revolt. - Does not create a government  The Revolutionary War - The war of independence was long and bloody, with tens of thousands of casualties  among colonist, British soldiers, and Native Americans who fought on both sides - The colonists ultimately prevailed because it was so long so cloddy and so expensive  and for the British there was no end in sight.  o We won The Articles of Confederation - First American constitution  - America is really 13 sovereign states with a weak central government o No standing army  o Weak executive o No ability to tax and spend o Problems of international standing o Shay’s rebellion – serious threat to the government Constitutional convention – 1787: key issues - Key issues: o Revise or scrap the Articles of Confederation  o National power v state power o How much democracy? o Slavery - Some answers: o The great compromise – came from a debate about interest  (Virginia plan v new Jersey plan) bicameral legislature  o The three fifths compromise ­ 90% of the slave lived in 5 states – House of Representatives was based on state population. Wanted slaves to count  The Constitution - The convention produced a constitution with 7 articles - The first 3 articles outline the structure and power of the legislative, executive and  judicial branches - Other article relate to national power, the amendment process, and the ratification  process - It’s a brief document o Why? So adjustments could be made to it i. Article 1: Legislative branch - Bicameralism – division of a legislative assembly into 2 chambers or houses o Nebraska is the only state that is unicameral  - Expressed powers of government - Necessary and proper clause – also referred to as the “elastic clause”  ii. Article 2: Executive branch - Provides for an independent stronger and more energetic executive than in the  articles of confederation o Alexander Hamilton created this. – Important guy - The president is commander in chief, chief executive, and chief diplomat - Other powers include the nomination of executive and judicial officials and the  power to grant reprieves a pardons iii. Article 3: Judicial branch - Provides for a supreme court and other federal courts congress ca establish - Justices and judges have lifetime terms and are nominated by the president and  confirmed by the senate - Does not explicitly proved for judicial review the power of the courts to declare  actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional  The Separation of Powers 1. Legislative o Passes federal laws o Controls federal appropriations o Approves treaties and presidential appointments o Regulates interstate commerce  o Establishes lower – court system  2. Executive o Enforces laws o Serves as commander in chief of armed forces  o Makes foreign treaties o Nominates supreme court justices and federal court judges o Pardons those convicted in federal court 3. Judicial o Revise lower court decision o Decides constitutionality of laws o Decides cases involving disputes between states  iv. Articles 4 and 6: national unity and power - Article 4 provides reciprocity among the states through the full faith and credit  clause and the privileges and immunities clause  - The states respect each other decisions – driver’s license  - Article 6 promotes national power through the national supremacy clause o Supremacy Clause­  National government power/word is over the states v. Article 5: Amending the Constitution - Sets forth the procedures for amending the constitution  - The National Level: Proposal of Amendments  o A passage in House and senate each by 2/3 o Passage in a national convention called by congress in response to  petitions by 2/3 of the states - The state level ratification of amendments c. Acceptance by majority vote in the legislatures of ¾ of the state d. Acceptance by conventions called for threat purpose in 3/4 of the states  The founders feared power and tyranny vi. Article 7: Ratification - Calls for ratifying conventions in each of the 13 states - The constitution is deemed ratified when 9 of the 13 states vote to ratify  Constitutional limits on the National Governments Power - Separation of powers – division of gobe3rnmental power among several  institutions - Federalism – divides power between a central government and regional  governments - Bill of rights – ensures certain rights and liberties to the people  o First 10 amendment – helped pass the ratification processes The Fight for Ratification: Federalist v Antifederalist - The federalist favored ratification and a stronger national government o Federalist­ faction that were present at the Constitutional Convention –  not the same federalist as before – a party   - Antifederalist opposed ratification but disagreed among themselves about what  the alternative should be.  o Federalist papers  - At issue: o Nature of representation  o Danger posed by tyranny of the majority – a small group having all the  power  o Scope and location of governmental  power The Fight for Ratification  - Who were they? o Fed – property owners, creditors, merchants  o Anti – small farmers,  frontiersmen  - What did they believe?  o Fed – elites are best fir to govern and excessive democracy is dangerous o Anti – government should be close to the people and the concentration of  power in the hands of the elites is dangerous  - What system of government did they favor? o Fed – strong national government believed in filtration so that only elites  would obtain governmental power  o Anti – retention of power by state governments and protection of  individual rights  - Who were their leaders? o Fed – alexander Hamilton, James Madison, George Washington o Anti – Patrick Henry, George Mason, Elbridge Gerry, George Clinton The Fight for Ratification: the Bill of rights - The bill of rights is one key results of the fight for amendments  - 1   – limits on Congress - 2   3 , 4 ­  limits on the Executive th th th th - 5 , 6 , 7 , 8  – limits on Courts - 9 , 10  – limits on the National Government  Federalists vs. antifederalist: limiting governmental power - Representation – antifederalist wanted more representatives and greater  representation of various interests - Threats posed by the majority – federalists worried about the tyranny of the  majority - Governmental power – federalist wanted more centralized power.  Antifederalists wanted more local control  Beyond the constitution limiting governmental power - The Federalist and antifederalists agreed the governmental power had to be  checked they also agreed that mere parchment barriers would not be enough - In Federalists 10, James Madison outlines the strongest argument form the  federalist camp for why popular governments will succeed in the new US - Factions  In Federalist 10, James Madison argues: - The key problem of democracy is instability and factionalism - Factions are sown into the nature of man  - So we must control the effects of factions: o Representation and filtering of public option o Extend the sphere – take in a greater variety of interests  - The American solution was that well agree to disagree! o Safer with federalism then in states power of factions – his idea  Amending the Constitution - There have been just 17 amendments to the constitution since 1791 - 2 of these cancel each other out (prohibition) - The remaining 15 amendments can be broken down into 3 categories  Expansion of the electorate  - 14 – National definition of citizenship - 15 – Can’t prohibited someone to vote because of race - 19 – Extended right to women to vote - 23 – Extending rights to District of Columbia - 24 ­ Abolish poll tax - 26 – 18 year old to vote  Changing election - 12 – Separate ballot for Vice President  o If not, the President and VP would be of different parties­ this create  conflict  - 14 – Punished states who deprived freed slaves to vote - 17 – Direct elections of senators  - 20  ­  shortened time between elections and inauguration of the new president  and Congress - 22 – limited the presidential term  - 25 – provided for presidential succession in case of disability  Expanding and limiting the power of government - 11­ Limits the jurisdiction of federal courts  - 13 – Eliminated slavery  - 14 ­  due process of law in state courts  o Used to apply Bill of Rights to the States  - 16  – allows income tax  th - 27  – limits Congress’s power to raise its own salary  Lincoln the perpetuation of our political institutions  - 2 ways that the public should look at our government  - Lincoln argues for the rule of law a. Argues that the perpetuation of our political institution requires that actions  must not tolerate an violation the law not matter how small b. Argues that we should work to change unjust laws, but they must be  observed while they are in force.  Kings, letter form a Birmingham Jail - King argues for civil disobedience in the face3 of unjust or immoral laws a. Argues that individuals have a moral duty to break an unjust law b. Argues that individuals must accept the consequences openly and lovingly in  order to arouse the conscience of the community 


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