HY 315 Notes: Weeks 1 & 2
HY 315 Notes: Weeks 1 & 2 HY 315
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 315 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Kohl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see The Civil War in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Background to the War: 1619-1861 01/26/2016 ▯ “The Civil War happened because of slavery, not states’ rights.” – Dr. Kohl “Northern whites were just as racist as Southerners – this war was about slavery not racism.” ▯ Distinctive Traits of American Slavery First came on a Dutch ship in 1619 By 1660s, most colonies had laws about slavery Property o Owned. Believed they could do whatever with their property. Permanent o Indentured servants vs. Slavery Indentured servants were volunteers and eventually came to an end unlike slavery Hereditary Racial o Wasn’t as racial early on Indians were used as labor as well as indentured servants o Becomes impossible over time to get European whites to enter servanthood o Indian slaves are too dangerous Tribes could retaliate Regional o In all of the British colonies o More in the southern colonies than Northern It wasn’t economically feasible to have slaves in the North because of the growing seasons o Became associated with staple crops Crops that wouldn’t perish and were needed everywhere ▯ Why didn’t anyone question slavery? Ancient institution that had been around for thousands of years Was around for 150 years before first anti-slavery group emerged o First anti-slavery group: Quakers in 1770s The Bible didn’t condemn it They lived in a very hierarchical world o At the very bottom: no rights or freedom o At the very top: kings and rulers (could basically do whatever they wanted) ▯ What about violence? They lived in a very violent world, especially compared to today o Customary punishment was beheadings, hangings, beatings, etc. Everything began to change around the American Revolution o Enlightenment thinkers emerged every man had a right to freedom; religious changes ▯ Founding Fathers and Slavery Northwest Ordinance (1787) o “Slavery shall be forever prohibited in these territories” Gradual abolition in the North o All states north of Maryland; all in various ways o Why didn’t the South do this? Not many slaves in Massachusetts, but half the population in South Carolina consisted of slaves. Slaves were critical to the economy Keep in mind the race question: would affect socially the South more than the North ▯ January 19, 2016 ▯ Founding Fathers and Slavery (continued) End of foreign slave trade (1808) o Wanted to end slave trade at the Constitutional Convention but states like South Carolina and Georgia put up a fight o Compromise: could not close it for 20 years o January 1, 1808 – illegal to bring a new slave into the U.S. This prevents getting slaves from other countries but there were still over 4 million slaves by 1860 Impacts: price of slaves became much more expensive Larger percentage of the South would have owned slaves Price of slaves in 1860: $1,000 (roughly 3x yearly salary of the average Northern worker) Slaves were treated better (not necessarily well, but better) Slave owner had every incentive to nurture slave families Why didn’t the founding fathers do more? o Profits, prejudice, & priorities Protect the American Union ▯ The Constitution & Slavery At this point, the Constitution only mentions slavery three times o The word “slavery” is actually never used, is only alluded to 3/5 Clause (article 1, section 2) o Regarding taxes and representation in the House o The dispute: whether slaves should be counted as citizens or not Would increase the South’s representation in the House South said “yes”, North said “no” Would increase taxes South said “no”, North said “yes” o Counted as “yes” for both representation and taxation, but only for 3/5 of a person Irony: after the war was over, when slaves were freed, the side that lost actually gained even more representation Fugitive slave clause (article 4, section 2) o What happened if a slave went into a free state? o Became a Federal responsibility to capture & return slaves to their owners ▯ Slavery in Early Republic: 1787-1831 “Necessary, Temporary Evil” – thought slavery would eventually fade out because… Slavery was only profitable when you can grow year-round, worldwide crops o Main staple crops: tobacco, indigo, rice, long-staple cotton o Tobacco: mainly in Virginia, Maryland area Really wastes the soil Maryland increasingly begins to look like Pennsylvania, quits growing tobacco, no more need for slaves Virginia begins to grow less tobacco, now has too many slaves Becomes the largest net exporter of slaves in the country o Indigo: mainly grown in the Carolinas, used to dye cotton England didn’t want to buy indigo from France, so it gave a subsidy to workers in the British colonies After the American Revolution, the subsidy ended and indigo production ceased No more need for slaves o Long-staple cotton: located in the sea islands of South Carolina and Georgia Very luxurious cotton & very few seeds Produces high quality cotton Since it could only be grown in very specific places, slavery was contained and wasn’t going anywhere Thought slavery wasn’t going to be a problem because they thought it would eventually fade out but then… Eli Whitney & the cotton gin boom o The cotton gin took the seeds out of the cotton o Now states could grow short-staple cotton Didn’t produce as high of a quality Had to be sold in larger quantities Could be grown almost anywhere in the South o Without the cotton gin, short-staple cotton isn’t economical o Rejuvenates the need for slaves Manumission and colonization o A push to manument or free slaves upon their own death so that gradually slavery would end begins o Eventually some states outlawed or made this very hard to do “bad for the slave trade” o Colonization movement was controversial After they were freed, they should be colonized somewhere outside of the U.S. Liberia was the result Expresses white people’s desire to get rid of black people Problems: Slaves didn’t want to go Africa wasn’t their home, they (for the most part) weren’t from there Lincoln pushed for it still, never happened Good side Promotes manumission A lot of people were willing to free their slaves if they could be sent back to Africa You believed it was an evil, but didn’t know how to get rid of it ▯ 1831: The Turning Point 2 most important: o Garrison & the Liberator Newspaper calling for immediate abolition “You don’t compromise or continue an evil” Began a Northern reform movement o Nat Turner slave rebellion Slave in the Virginia South Hampton area Most “successful” slave rebellion in history Killed about 60 people – men, women, & children Amplifies the fear of every slaveholder in the South In South Carolina, slaves outnumbered whites 20- to-1 Happens only 6 months after Garrison floods the South with anti-slavery propaganda Virginia’s Defense o What would happen if we actually ended slavery? o Brought in an economist, said “we can’t do it” Not economically feasible – would cost too much money The South turns inward o Had been very cosmopolitan (Thomas Jefferson was a southerner) but changed o Began to stop sending their children North for schooling, they began to start their own schools UA was founded in 1831 – not a coincidence o Slave codes were tightened Illegal to educate slaves Created slave patrols o Slavery’s defense Had to deal with a psychological problem Played on consciences Began to change “necessary evil” into a “positive good” They were very nurturing and kind to the slaves, provided things like healthcare and shelter Played up the necessity that blacks need white control o Civil liberties Becomes dangerous to speak out against slavery – bad time to be an abolitionist No freedom of speech Southern postmasters burn Northern anti-slavery propaganda o South begins to close down around the institution and protect it ▯ Abolitionist Position It is a wrong done to the slaves There is no compromise to sin Believed in racial equality Called for an immediate end (but voluntary) o The abolitionist position was only the view of 2-3% of the white population Louder than 2-3% South amplified them by reacting negatively North didn’t like them either ▯ Anti-Slavery Position Abe Lincoln & the Republican party will adopt this view Believed it was a wrong done to whites White freedom, equality, & opportunity require its absence o Saw the South as either: Slaves & powerful plantation owners or “white trash” aka poor whites who could not afford slaves o Kills the poor white’s work ethic because they don’t want to be seen as doing the same work as slaves o Gives some whites (powerful plantation owners) too much power No belief in equality (pushed for colonization) o You could be anti-slavery and still very racist Focused on how white society developed o Once slavery was introduced, it was fixed permanently Containment & gradualism o Gradually get rid of it or contain it ▯ Pro-Slavery Position White freedom, equality, & opportunity require its presence o To get ahead, you have to have slaves Insurmountable problems to elimination o See Virginia’s Defense o Once introduced, it was fixed permanently Slavery must expand or it will die o Scared that it would happen like what did in VA Didn’t want to have too many slaves ▯ January 21 ▯ Road to War At this point, South has slavery, North does not Constitution protected slavery in the states o Fugitive slave law o Did not outlaw it in the states North as racist as the South o The motion to escape racism is very modern o Blacks were still mistreated in the North Believed slavery was still bad, but they were still racist Get rid of slavery, not racism Can’t get rid of racism before slavery though Abolitionist were a tiny minority in the North Western expansion provides loophole for anti-slavery & pro-slavery to clash o The North believed they couldn’t expand West if slavery was still allowed This makes it a federal, not a state question Anti-Slavery grows larger, grows into a majority of North in last 15 years before the War ▯ Problem of Western Expansion Missouri crisis 1819-1820 o Missouri submitted a constitution that admitted slavery o James Tallmadge submitted an amendment for slavery to be gradually abolished The votes were almost all the way sectionalized Thomas Jefferson – “awakened him with terror” to realize the country had such a sectional split People’s moral views have changed Slavery was wrong in the North, okay in the South There was a geographic line o Missouri was going to be the first state to be carved out of the Louisiana Purchase People believed this would set a precedent Missouri Compromise o Henry Clay o Missouri can be a slave state, but Maine could be a free state o Southern boundary drawn that slavery could not be allowed above o Alabama balanced Illinois (1819 & 1818) Slavery was dropped from politics in the 20s and 30s ▯ Texas Annexation - 1845 Andrew Jackson was president when Texas wanted to be annexed in the 30s, but said no (because of political/slavery issues) In 1844 & 1845, there was a manifest destiny push to annex Texas o Territory was huge, worried that it would give the South political clout Comes directly in as a state o Mexico never recognizes Texas as independent o Went to war in 1846 (Polk) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gives us California Opens up the question of slavery again Wilmot Proviso – any land that comes from Mexico should be closed to slavery Never passes, but it shows Northern desire to keep slavery out of the West ▯ Compromise of 1850 Some states want to secede because of this Admits California as a free state o 3 stages of admitting a new state open land, territorial, statehood territorial stage: government is formed when enough people live there, they write a constitution and applies for statehood o Could someone prohibit slavery in the territories? Once a state, nobody questions it What happens in a state when a territory happens as a state Texas comes in as a slave state; California is free 2 territories open to slavery – said nothing about it o 4 views: Wilmot Proviso – prohibit slavery Southern (John Calhoun) – cannot prohibit MO Compromise – just draw a line Popular Sovereignty – the people shall decided Once it passed, it looked like the decision had been made o Secession of 1850 & 1851 fails (what would have happened?) ▯ Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Originally only about the transcontinental railroad – not slavery o Everyone wants it in their own backyard o If in a state, the fed won’t pay for it o Stephen Douglas: draws a route from Chicago to San Francisco South won’t pass a bill to organize Nebraska because of the MO Compromise line o South wants: divide the territory into two: Kansas and Nebraska o South wants: repeal the Missouri Compromise to allow popular sovereignty Utah and New Mexico set a precedent (allows slavery) Sets a fire storm in the North Vilifies Stephen Douglas Shatter the Northern Democratic party Falls completely under Southern sway The Whig party was destroyed Already abolished in the South because it was soft on slavery issues Republican party rises up – anti-slavery party in the territories No popular sovereignty First full-service anti-slavery party Most were Whig ideas Nobody could be Republican in a slave state, so only in the North ▯ After Kansas-Nebraska Rise of the Republicans 1854 Dred Scott Decision 1857 o Supreme Court decision – slave was taken into a free territory and thought he should be free o Scott thought he was free because he lived in a free state o Supreme Court declared Missouri Compromise unconstitutional – government could not prohibit slavery in the territories (most justices were Southerners) o Dred Scott is still a slave Lecompton Constitution 1857-58 o Had to deal with the Kansas-Nebraska Act o Northerners fight over Kansas – applies to be a slave state even though virtually no slaves live in Kansas Southerners brought in phony electoral votes 1600 votes where 12 people lived o free state government set up – slave state is legitimate o James Buchannan – Kansas is a slave state as much as Missouri Stephen Douglas is in a pickle because it was basically his fault He stands against the constitution Republican party rallies behind him (even though he is a democrat) o Kansas doesn’t become a slave state o This throws off the 1860 election Lincoln wants to run against him as a Republican in 1858, but the Republican party backs the Democratic Stephen Douglas Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858 o How can Lincoln distinguish himself? ▯ ▯ ▯
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