New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

chapter 11 outline

by: Caitrín Hall

chapter 11 outline BIOL 1110

Caitrín Hall
GPA 3.9

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover chapter 11 information discussed in class plus explanations from the textbook.
Introduction to Botany
Bernard Goffinet
Class Notes
Biology, botany, outline
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Botany

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitrín Hall on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at University of Connecticut taught by Bernard Goffinet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Botany in Biology at University of Connecticut.


Reviews for chapter 11 outline


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/26/16
Roots and Plant Nutrition 11.1 Roots play a variety of roles in plants  Roots anchor plants and absorb water and minerals o First plant organ from seed: embryonic root (radicle) o Primary root system  branched root system o Shoot development/photosynthesis depend on water uptake by roots o Branch roots develop when water is available **hormone abscisic acid stops growth until water is available again** o Soil-binding capacity – prevents soil erosion  Some roots store carbohydrates o Biennial plants store carbs in fleshy storage roots during 1 st year, food fuels development of flowers, fruits, and seeds during nd 2 year  Sites of hormone/secondary compound production o Cytokinin & gibberellin go through xylem to shoot for growth o Secrete secondary compounds to kill bacteria, fungi, survival of the fittest plant competition  Some roots support stems o Prop roots grow from above ground stem into soil o Buttress roots – large as a person, above ground o Aerial roots – ropelike roots from branches to soil  Pneumatophores provide oxygen to underwater roots of mangroves o Specialized roots of mangrove trees that grow in water o Grow upward into air; absorb oxygen through lenticels – water- repellent surface openings o Contain aerenchyma tissue with air-filled, open channels o O2 generates ATP in roots, needed for nutrient uptake by roots  Other specialized roots o Herbaceous plants produce contractile roots – collapse cells to pull shoot deeper for warmth o Parasitic plants obtain materials from host plants o Epiphytic plants grow non-parasitically on other plants 11.2 Taproots, fibrous roots, and feeder roots are major types of underground root formations Differences result from seedling’s primary root  Taproot system – single main root from which many branches emerge; long systems lift deep soil water; gymnosperms and eudicot angiosperms  Adventitious roots emerge from the surface of a stem; no single root is most prominent; monocots  Fibrous system – highly branched & shallower than taproot system o Feeder roots – produced by taproot and fibrous root systems; fine branch roots that absorb water and minerals; very near soil surface but extend far horizontally 11.3 Root external and internal structure are intimately related to function External root structures  Branch (lateral) roots – grow from root tip; soiBranc texture influences branching; epidermis and rooth root axis contact soil Emerging branch  Root hairs – epidermal cells with long extensions; root main location of water/mineral uptake; near root tip; uptake selectivity  Root apical meristem (RAM) – meristematic cells that divide rapidly to increase # cells in main root Root  Root cap – generated by & protects RAM hairs o Contains starch­rich amyloplasts sense gravity when they fall as root position changes; signal downward growth o Dispersed root cap border cells modify Mucig external root environment; “goalies” Borde el  Mucigel – gluey polysaccharide secreted from r cells Golgi apparatus of root tip cells; lubricant helps passage through soil & benefits  microbes Root Internal root structures cap  RAM produces primary tissues – protoderm, ground meristem, procambium  Zone of elongation o Cells from apical meristem elongate by water absorption into vacuole o Cell vacuole enlarges & exerts pressure on cell wall; requires more cytoplasm o Cell specialization begins here; phloem differentiates from procambium early  Phloem brings organic material to root cells; its early appearance reflects  root tip’s requirement for these materials for high rates of cell division  Zone of maturation (specialization) o Procambium  vascular tissues in root core o Protoderm  root epidermis o Ground meristem  cortex – between epidermis and innermost vascular tissues o Epidermis and cortex – absorption of water/minerals  Symplastic – uptake into the cytoplasm of root hairs  Root hairs absorb minerals through proteins and water by osmosis  & aquaporins – increase rate of water absorption  Transport proteins bind only to useful minerals  Root hair minerals  plasmodesmata  cytoplasm of cortex  Apoplastic – movement through loose cell walls & spaces between  epidermis and cortex o Endodermis – filter system between cortex and vascular system  Waterproof barrier wrapped in lignin + suberin = Casparian strip  Minerals enter non­suberized regions of endodermis; transport proteins  carry useful minerals & reject harmful; minerals taken up by root hairs  pass Casparian strip because they’ve been filtered already o Primary vascular system – xylem, phloem, pericyle  Pericycle – produces branch roots; retains meristematic activity; cell  division here forms vascular cambium Ecological significance of roots  Reduce erosion  Microbes fix nitrogen for plants Soil minerals  Necessary ions: nitrate, phosphate, calcium, iron, copper, manganese, magnesium  Many mineral ions – cations that electrostatically bind to negative surface of clay  Electrostatic attraction holds cations in soil to reduce mineral loss during rain (leaching)  Some ions are harmful (aluminum)  Cation exchange – abundant hydrogen ions bind to negative soil particles, which release  cations that plant roots can then absorb Chapter Wrap-up Examine and Discuss Self Test  1. Why do roots require oxygen? Oxygen and phosphate generate ATP in roots. 2. What are pneumatophores, what is their function, and what types of plants produce them? Roots specialized to grow under water; capture O2; mangroves produce them 3. Distinguish among taproots, adventitious roots, fibrous roots, and feeder roots. Taproots - one main root with other branch roots; grow really deep down to absorb water Adventitious roots emerge from stem surface; no main root Fibrous roots – equally fine branches with no main root; shallower than taproots Feeder roots – develop from taproot and fibrous root systems; fine branch roots that grow just below surface; extend horizontally; absorb minerals and water 4. Starting at a branch root and ending at the tip of a root, describe the external features that you would see. 5. Considering the internal structure of a root, what three major zones would you encounter? Zones of cell division, elongation, and maturation 6. Explain how root hairs and endodermal cells absorb useful soil minerals. Root hairs  Symplastic – absorption through osmosis and mineral transport through proteins into cytoplasm of root  xylem  Apoplastic – water and minerals flow through intercellular spaces and loose cell walls into cytoplasm of root  Casparian strip Endodermal cells – filters fluid between cortex & vascular system with Casparian strip Applying Concepts  1. Imagine that you germinate a seed on a piece of wet filter paper and it sprouts a primary root that is about 2 cm in length. You use an ink pen to place back marks on the root, startingat the tip and marking the root at 1 mm intervals, for a total of about 20 marks. You now allow the root to grow to 5 cm in length. Which areas of the root will not have elongated, so that marks there will still be spaced 1 mm apart? Which areas will have changed their length and hence the spacing between the black marks? Increased spacing closest to apical meristem 2. Why do root hairs occur in the zone of maturation instead of closer to the root tip? They would get destroyed if they had to travel through soil with elongating or dividing cells—zone of maturation is more stable 3. Imagine that you and a friend are in the produce section of a grocery store looking at potatoes. You mention that potatoes are a kind of stem known as a tuber, not roots, even though potatoes grow underground. Your friend disagrees, arguing that potatoes are roots because they grow underground. What evidence could you point to, without cutting or otherwise modifying a potato that would support your case? Sprouts will grow from the buds if it is a stem


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.