chapter 18 outline
chapter 18 outline BIOL 1110
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitrín Hall on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at University of Connecticut taught by Bernard Goffinet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Botany in Biology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Naming, Identifying, and Classifying Plants 18.1 Naming, identifying, and archiving plants Carolus Linnaeus – father of taxonomy & systematics Established 2-part scientific name Each species has a unique scientific name Species – a group of individual organisms descended from a common ancestor; can interbreed with each other but not outside the group International Code of Botanical Nomenclature – rules for naming plants Scientific names are structured to provide useful info Generic name (capitalized noun) + specific epithet (lowercase adjective) Generic name can be used alone but specific name means nothing on its own Provide accurate communication & convey info about organism Hybrids (formed by process of allopolyploidy) have their own names – convey info about parental origin Subspecies – group of organisms that inhabits a geographical area different from other members of same species Varieties – members of the same species that have small, consistent differences Cultivar – variant that does not occur in nature; names designed to attract customers Resources for identifying plants Identification keys o Developed for particular geographic regions Professional biologists use dichotomous (forking in two branches) keys & DNA barcode sequences – standard, short DNA sequences that can be compared among organisms; 3 plastid sequences + nuclear spacer sequence Herbaria – collections of pressed plant specimens 18.2 Plants and other organisms are classified according to their relationships Modern classification systems Phylogenetic systematics – field of study in which biologists organize organisms according to ancestry, or evolutionary relationships Relies on cladistics analysis – method for analyzing characteristics of groups of organisms to infer evolutionary relationships Yields phylogenetic trees – diagrams with stems, nodes, branches, and roots that reflect hypotheses of evolutionary relationships being studied Characters – structural, biochemical, or molecular features used in cladistics Apomorphies – derived characters from more ancient characters Clade – group of organisms sharing at least one characteristic, a synapomorphy; monophyletic group because members descended from a single common ancestor Species are classified into larger categories Species complexes – groups of closely related species that are important in breeding new types of plants Species species complexes genera families orders classes phyla kingdoms domains Classifications change as new discoveries are made Chapter Wrap-up Examine and Discuss Self Test 1. What are some of the advantages of scientific names, by comparison to common names? 2. What are the two parts of a scientific name, which part is a noun, which part is an adjective, which part may be used by itself, and which parts should be italicized or underlined? 3. What is an herbarium, why are herbaria important, and how do herbaria differ from botanical gardens? 4. What kinds of structural characters do modern plant biologists use to identify and classify plants? What kinds of DNA sequences do modern plant biologists use to barcode plants? 5. Distinguish between plant taxonomy and plant systematics. 6. Which scientist was the first to use two-part scientific names, why did he make this innovation, and why are scientific names commonly derived from Latin or Greek words? Applying Concepts 1. Construct a dichotomous key to the following closed geometrical figures: a circle, a trapezoid, a pentagon, an equilateral tri- angle, a scalene triangle, and a rectangle. If necessary, begin by using a dictionary or other reference to obtain definitions for these geometric terms. Then consider which two structures are most similar to each other and which are most different. This simple exercise models the logic used in computer programs that biologists employ to determine relationships among species that are similar in some respects and different in others. 2. Imagine that you have the job of raising funds from donors to support your local botanical garden. What benefits to science and society would you emphasize to prospective donors? 3. Imagine that you are given the job of raising funds from donors to support a local herbarium. What benefits to science and society would you emphasize?
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