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Chapter 12 Textbook Notes

by: Taylor Pinson

Chapter 12 Textbook Notes 107

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Chemistry > 107 > Chapter 12 Textbook Notes
Taylor Pinson
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These are the textbook notes from chapter 12. I will have a study guide for next week's test up soon. Goodluck!!
Chemistry 107
Class Notes
General Chemistry
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Pinson on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 107 at University of Kentucky taught by Peters in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 107 in Chemistry at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 01/26/16
Chapter 12 Textbook Notes: Solutions p. 544-595 BE SURE TO REVIEW THE KEY EQUATIONS FOUND IN THE BOOK 12.1 Ø   A thirsty solution is a solution that draws more water to itself. One example of this is how seawater actually dehydrates you when consumed. 12.2 Ø   In aqueous solutions, water is the solvent and a solid, liquid, or gas is the solute. Ø   The solubility of a substance is the amount of the substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. o   The formation of a solution does not always lower the potential energy of its constituent particles. Ø   Entropy is a measure of energy dispersal is a system, o   Solvent-Solute Interactions: The interactions between a solvent particle and a solute particle. o   Solvent-Solvent Interaction: The interactions between a solvent particle and another solvent particle. o   Solute-Solute Interaction: The interactions between a solute particle and another solute particle. Ø   A substance is miscible when all interactions are of similar magnitude so that the two substances are soluble in each other. 12.3 Ø   Energy changes are associating with solution forming: o   Separating the solute into its constitute particles. o   Separating the solvent particles from each other to make room for solute particles. o   Mixing the solute particles with the solvent particles. Ø   If the sum of the endothermic terms is approximately equal in magnitude to the exothermic solution, then the change in enthalpy is about 0. Ø   If the sum of the endothermic terms is smaller in magnitude than the exothermic term, then the change in enthalpy is negative and the solution is exothermic. Ø   If the sum of the endothermic terms is greater in magnitude than the exothermic term, then the solution process is endothermic. 12.4 Ø   Dynamic equilibrium is when the rates of dissolution and recrystallization become equal. Ø   A saturated solution is a solution in which the dissolved solute is in dynamic equilibrium with the solid solute. Ø   An unsaturated solution is when a solution contains less than the equilibrium amount of a solute. Ø   A supersaturated solution is one containing more than the equilibrium amount of solution. An example of this is sweet tea and that it contains more sugar than water normally would by heating up the solution to dissolve the sugar. o   The solubility of most solids increases as temperature increases. Ø   Recrystallization is a common way to purify a solid. o   The solubility of gases in liquids decreasing with increasing temperature. o   The higher the difference in pressure between a gas and liquid, the more soluble that the gas is in the liquid. §   BE SURE TO REVIEW HENRY’S LAW 12.5 Ø   A dilute solution contains small quantities of solute relative to the amount of solvent. Ø   A concentrated solution contains large quantities of solute relative to the amount of solvent. o   BE SURE TO LOOK AT THE EQUATIONS IN THIS SECTION 12.6 Ø   A colligative property is a property that depends on the number of particles dissolved in a solution. o   REVIEW ROULT’S LAW Ø   Osmosis is the flow of solvent from a solution of lower solvent from a solution to one of higher solute concentration. Ø   A semipermeable membrane is a membrane that selectively allows some substances to pass through, but not others. o   REVIEW THE FORMULA FOR OSMOTIC PRESSURE. 12.7 Ø   The ratio of moles of particles in solution to moles of formula units dissolved is called the Van’t Hoff Factor. 12.8 Ø   A colloidal dispersion is a mixture in which a dispersed substance is finely divided in a dispersing medium. Ø   The scattering of light by a colloidal dispersion is know as the Tyndall effect. Citation: Nivaldo J. Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition, Pearson, 2014


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