chapter 25 outline
chapter 25 outline BIOL 1110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitrín Hall on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at University of Connecticut taught by Bernard Goffinet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Botany in Biology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Flowering Plant Co-evolution With Animals 25.1 Co-evolutionary interactions are important in nature and human affairs Co-evolutionary plant-animal associations – alliances that have influenced the evolution of both partners Plants provide animals with food rewards: nuggets of protein/lipid, nectar, fruit Plants trick pollinators into “mating” Plants respond to pathogens with evolving defenses Importance in agriculture o Fruits developed as food reward for animal dispersers o Honey bee pollination services o Strong pesticides harm bees’ learning ability o GM plants harm pollinators with built-in insect protection Importance in global ecology o Animal disperser extinction leads to their plant’s extinction and that plant’s dependents (animals who feed on plant) extinction o Chemical change/unfamiliar plant affects animals 25.2 Cross-pollination benefits plants Pollination – mechanism for transferring pollen from anthers to stigmas for sexual reproduction in flowers In-breeding – combination of two genomes that are genetically similar o Self-mating may have too many deleterious recessive genes o Reduced by genetically controlled self-incompatibility—pollen grains of same flower cannot reach egg Out-breeding – mating of sperm and egg from genetically different organisms of the same species o Enhances genetic variability o Evolutionary flexibility needed to cope with environmental change 25.3 Animal pollination benefits plants and pollinators Plants are attractive to multiple pollinator species Animal pollinators have more precision in transporting tiny pollen grains to small stigma targets Co-evolved animals and plants influence each other’s traits Plants attract by flower scent and color; produce fragrances when pollinators are most active; save resources once pollinated 1. Flowery scents 2. Compounds that mimic sex attractants 3. Dung or rotten-meat smells Flower color compounds: anthocyanins, other flavonoids, betalains, and carotenoids o Pigments located in vacuoles or Chromoplasts o Nectar guides Flower shapes and positions o Some have landing l=platform o Many have complex structures that prevent entry unless pollinators are strong enough to push flower parts out of the way o Some occur within traps Food rewards o Nectar – solution of sugar, AA, and other substances produced in nectaries o Plants use nectar drugs (caffeine) to promote pollinator fidelity o Rich in protein, lipids, and oils Pollination syndromes – coordinated traits of flowers and pollinators o If needed, reference page 25-13 & 25-14 25.4 Animal seed dispersal benefits plants Nutritional rewards for animals Advantages: reduces competition between parent and progeny plants for the same resources, lowers probability that seed predators will find and destroy seed production, allows plants to colonize new areas, ability of fur to transport fruits or seeds, tendencies of rodents and ants to bury seeds, ability of large animals to ingest and transport large seeds containing abundant nutrients (fertilizer) Fruit/seed production of coevolved plants is coincides with presence of animals Odor and color changes are common cues that plants use to communicate with animals seed dispersers Chapter Wrap-up Examine and Discuss Self Test 1. How does in-breeding differ from out-breeding? What is a disadvantage of in-breeding? Describe several strategies that flowering plant use to decrease the likelihood of in-breeding. 2. Does in-breeding serve any positive functions? If so, what might those be? 3. Describe some food rewards that plants provide to animal pollinators. 4. Discuss some strategies that flowering plants use to attract pollinators. 5. Describe flower constancy (fidelity) with regard to flower pollination. What is the advantage of pollinator constancy to the plant? To the pollinator? 6. Discuss the interaction between beetles and beetle-pollinated flowers. How is each organism adapted for this interaction? 7. Discuss the interaction between bees and bee-pollinated flowers. How is each organism adapted for this interaction? 8. Discuss the interaction between flies and fly-pollinated flowers. How is each organism adapted for this interaction? 9. Discuss the interaction between butterflies and moths and butterfly- pollinated and moth-pollinated flowers. How is each organism adapted for this interaction? 10. Discuss the interaction between birds and bird-pollinated flo ers. How is each organism adapted for this interaction? 11. Discuss the interactions between bats and bat-pollinated flowers. How is each organism adapted for this interaction? Applying Concepts 1. Figs produce their flowers in closed inflorescences called syconia. A fig syconium will be visited by a single female fig wasp carrying pollen on her body. She bores into the syconium and pollinates the fig flowers as she lays her eggs in some of thefig ovaries. The resulting wasp larvae feed off the developing seeds, one larva per seed. The ovules without larvae eventually mature into normal fig seeds. After hatching, the male wasps mate with the females, who then crawl around the syconium collecting pollen from the anther-producing flowers. Eventually, the females fly off to a new syconium to start the cycle again. If a female is not carrying any pollen when she enters the new syconium, none of her offspring will survive, because the needed seeds will not develop. Conversely, if no female wasp visits a syconium, no fig seeds will develop because flowers will not be pollinated. The fig and the wasp are intimately dependent on each other to complete their life cycles. Describe some of the advantages and disadvantages to each organism of such a close association. 2. In 1877, Charles Darwin forwarded a letter from Fritz Müller, a naturalist who had been observing multicolored Lantana flowers growing in the Brazilian forest. He noted, “We have herea Lantana the flowers of which last three days, being yellow on the first, orange on the second, purple on the third day. The plant is visited by several butterflies. As far as I have seen the purple flowers are never touched. Some species inserted their proboscis both into yellow and orange flowers; others... exclusively into the yellow flowers of the first day. If the flowers fell off at the end of the first day the inflorescences would be much less conspicuous” (Nature 17(78): 1877). What do you think is happening here? Are the plants communicating with the butterflies? 3. Smyrna figs are delicious fruits that are quite suitable for drying and eating. These plants propagate easily by cuttings and were introduced into California in the 1700s. Large orchards were planted in the early 1800s, and although the trees grew very well, they did not produce fruit. In the 1860s, a wild fig was planted in a fig orchard on the Gates farm near Modesto, California, and the Smyrna figs there soon began producing delicious fruits. At that time, other orchards around the state still were not producing fruit. Considering Question 1, what do you think happened here? Why did the mature fig trees suddenly begin bearing fruit?
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