Class Note for ECOL 482 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Teleost Radiation Teleostean radiation BIG 20000 species Others put higher 30000 Stark 1987 Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates About 12 living vertebrates teleosts Tetrapods dominant land vertebrates teleosts dominate water First Triassic 240 my Originally thought nonmonophyletic many independent lineages derived from quotpholidophoridquot ancestry Moreorless established teleostean radiation is true monophyletic group Teleost Monophny Lauder and Liem support this notion 1 Mobile premaxilla not mobile like maxilla halecostomes hinged premaxilla modi cation enhancln suction generation Provides asic structural development of truly mobile premaxilla enabling jaw protrusion Jaw protrusion evolved independently gtitmes luteleogean rdlation21 A s anop ysn ypnnl ormes Atherinomorpha and 2 Mame1 Percomorpha especially certain derived percomorphs cichlids and labroid allies Mm Faua mm PREMAXILLA Teleost Monophny Lauder amp Liem support notion 2 Unpaired basibranchial tooth plates trend consolidation dermal tooth patches in pharynx Primitive whole bucco pharynx w irregular tooth patches consolidate into functional units modi ed w n teleostei esp functional pharyngeal jaws Teleost Monophny Lauder and Liem support this notion 3 Internal carotid foramen enclosed in parasphenoid are all characters functional maybe don39t have one why should they Teleost Tails Most interesting structure in teleosts is caudal fin Teleosts possess caudal skeleton differs from other neopterygian fishes Possible major functional significance in Actinopterygian locomotor patterns Halecomorphs ginglymodes caudal fin rays articulate with posterior edge of haemal spines and hypurals modified haemal spines Fin is heterocercal inside and out Tails Chondrostean hinge at base of upper lobe weakness btw body and tail lobe Asymmetrical tail asymmetrical thrust with respect to body axis Teleost Tail Teleosts 1 Ural neural arches elongated into uroneurals Ural neural arches modified into uroneurals stiffen upper lobe and serve also as insertion site for dorsal fin rays 2 Preural and ural centra is important esp win teleostei where numbers and fusions are significant Pre urals carry normal haemal arches and spines ural centra carry hypurals Boundary marked by caudal artery and vein 3 The hypurals expanded into a broad plate Internally asymmetrical but externally symmetrical tail fin Early teleosts uroneurals small Advanced teleosts uroneurals extend across centra eliminate line of flexion in upper lobe Functionally assumed symmetrical tail means symmetrical thrust Lauder Found continuous locomotion hypurals appear to distort and twist resulting in anterioventrally inclined thrust asymmetrical Fast start accelerations strain patterns consistent with symmetrical anteriorly directed thrust CLC continuous locomotion FS fast start Other Teleost Traits Teleosts have Mauthner system specialized nerve cells Located in medulla two giant nerve cells each accompanied by two enlarged dendrites that synapse with acoustic viii nerve Circuitry underlying the tailflip escape reflex includes a pair of giant medullary neurons called Mauthner cells Possibly rapid escape actions functional advantage of teleostean caudal structure important biological role TAXONOMY AT LAST Four major groups 1 Osteoglossomorpha 2 Elopomorpha 3 Clupeomorpha 4 Euteleostei this last group is enormous and complex Osteoglossomprph Osteoglossomorphs bony tongues most phylogenetically primitive living teleosts First fossils known from Upper Jurassic 163144 my Group derives name from presence oftongue Parasphenoid bite that is very well developed in some members Have large tooth plates on the tongue basihyal and basibranchials that oppose the parasphenoid toothplates Prey capture is initially by inertial suction once into expanding cone tonguebite results in prey processes Osteoglossomprph Number characteristics shared by living osteogossomorphs Two are 1Peouliar arrangement of gut and 2 Presence ofa peculiarventral process on hypobranohials 2 and 3 Lauder and Liem s hypothesis of osteoglossomorph interrelationships Divided into two main groups A Osteoglossoidei and B Notopteroidei AREOsteoglossoidei Osteoglossum 2 sp SA amp Soleropages 2 sp India amp 8 Asia united in osteoglossidae Pantodon 1sp West Africa Pantodontidae Arapaimidae Heterotis 1sp West Africa amp Arapaima 1sp South America ll e olved mouth brooding behavior and interestingly it is paternal fish that roo s Osteoglossomprph Neotopteroidei Neotopteroidei Tremendous mormyrid radiation Well establIshed group peculiar type of otoph sic connection btw ear and swimbladder also strangely mo ilied ventral branchial muscles Morm 39idae widespread African family nearly 200 species descrI ed and Gymnarcus niloticus andtogether called Mormyriformes A 39tican species are electroreceptive while lndian species are no Hiodontidae 2 species Hiodon tergisus moone e and Hiodon msoides goldeye Wdespread throughout mi dle North erIca lt punuagmlng MarquotMat i l MORMVHIDAE Mormyriformes dominate Why group within lineage is so quotsuccessfulquot or speciose Mormyrids widely distributed throughout subSaharan Africa Riverine group Show variation in feeding regime mostly bottom insectivores two mormyrus and gynarchus are piscivores And Pollimyrus isidori is a midwater plankton feeder seen in aquarium it feeds on bottom Mormyriformes dominate Most nocturnal Small eyes lack bright coloration Complex social communication via unique electrical modality Electric communication used in aggression courtship and appeasement and in identifying sex species and individual Electroreception believed that electroreception is ancestral vertebrate sense widely present in lower aquatic vertebrates appears to have been lost in teleostean ancestry Within the teleostei has been reevolved at least twice Osteoglossomorphs Ostariophysans cat shes and gymnotid eels 10 Lateral line complex sensory system cutaneous sensory organs over head and trunk detect pressure waves in water giving sh so called distant touch ability in some teeosts modi ed into electroreceptors Mormyriforms weakly electric sh Electric organ in tail modi ed muscle tissue Organ discharges continuously Weak current can39t feel or do any damage Contrasts with strong electric sh Electric eel Gymnotidae generates shocks 500 volts and 1 ampere Prey capture device Before electroreception in shes discovered this difference caused a problem Why aren39t weak electric shes evolving into strong electric shes Answer doing a different thing not prey capture Electroreception navigation and communication weak because energy cost ofa continuous strong eld would be prohibitively high 11 TAXONOMY AT LAST Four major groups 1 1 2 jifittj vfilrbi39 its 2 Elopomorpha 3 Clupeomorpha 4 Euteleostei this last group is enormous and complex Elopomorpha 2 elopocephalan lineages Elopomorpha amp Clupeomorpha long time included together clearly two distinct teleostean Hneages Elopomorpha comprising about 650 species most Elopomorphs primarily marine fishes Earliest fossils from Cretaceous 110 my 12 Why elopomorphs united 1 Leptocephalus larva discovered 1777 distinct group of fishes Recognized larvae century later Elongate compressed nearly transparent body Series of myomeres covers most of lateral area ofthe body Head small compared with body and rudiments of dorsal anal and pectoral fins are present Basic structure of leptocephalus is same in all Elopomorphs Why elopomorphs united 2 Fusion of angular and retroarticular bones of owerjaw Virtually all teleosts angular bone Jsed with articulars Elopomorphs have Jsion between dermal angular and endochondral retroarticular forming an anguloretroarticular element 3 Presence of rostral and renasal ossicles Ossicles associated with acousticolateralis systemt at extends over teleosts head Uni uely elopomorphs have variable number of additional dermal canal ean39ng ossicles in rostral region forming bone 13 Elopomorpha 5 major groups Elopids tenpounders Elopidae tenpounders Mainly marine in tropical and subtropical oceans Megalopids tarpons Megalopidae tarpons Tropical and subtropical marine although tarpon enters freshwater Albuloids albulids and pterothrissids Albuloidei albuloids bone shes and halasauroids Deep sea spiny eels Anguilloids eels By far largest group of elopomorphs are anquilloids 19 families 147 genera and over 600 species Saccopharyngoids Most bizarre 3 genera 11 species TAXONOMY AT LAST Four major groups 1 quot 2 3 Clupeomorpha 4 Euteleostei this last group is enormous and complex lull l l 14 Clupeomorpha Clupeomorpha clearly defined aggregates of living teleosts five families with about 300 species but unsurpassed in terms of biomass and importance for fisheries Largest taxon of nondomesticated vertebrates harvested by man Total world fish catch 1991 at 6070 million tons Clupeoid populations striking increases and precipitous declines Peruvian anchoveta Engrauis ringens increased from negligible fishery 195039s to 812 million tons 196039s crash to 2 million tons 1973 Decline associated with recruitment failure caused by El Nino combined with management policy that led to over fishing 15 Features of Clupeids Neurocranium architecture two prominent foramena temporal bordered by frontals amp parietals and auditory foramen bordered by prootic exoccipital amp basioccipital Unique caudal skeleton urostyle composed of uroneural one fused with last preural centrum Hypural 1 is autogenous Unique otophysic connection between swim bladder and inner ear Recessus lateralis chamber in pterotic bone Also unique is Otophysic connection Swimbladders anterior extension lodge within two ossi ed bullae Who are Clupeids Denticipitoidei known only from extant monotypic genus Denticeps Strange little sh covered in denticles Engraulidae Anchovies 16 genera 140 species worldwide Characteristic snout overhanging mouth Chirocentridae wolf herrings one of few predatory clupeoids Dussumieriidae round herrings 7 genera and about 10 species Clupeidae herrings shads and menhadens 50 genera and 190 species 16 Denticeps and Shad 7 1quot Gluord Shad 7 14 Inches Threud rl Shad 1 5 Inches Tmeod n shod are usually easily distinguished from The gizzard shad by the fact The 1he Upper law does not proied beyond the lower iGw Ancovies and Herring Of course we didnquot I39ll39l39 ANCHOVIES on it why in you dd LandI3 I39m Girl 2 mm aimawn mi 17
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