Class Note for ECOL 482 at UA 2
Class Note for ECOL 482 at UA 2
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Agnatha Jawless Class Myxini Myxinidae hagfishes marine temperate no FW 1 family 6 genera with 32 species Only one species in western North Atlantic Myxine glu nasa Biology Brodal and Fange 1963 and Hardisty l979 systematics Fernholm Class Pteraspidomorphi Order Pteraspidiformes 7 Fossil 3 Class Cephalaspidomorphi Order Petromyzontiformes Petromyzontidae lampreys Freshwater and marine N and S temperate 1 family 6 genera and 40 species One marine species Pel ramyzan ma nus in WNA Biology Hardisty and Potter 4 volume set 19711982 Parasitic with nonparasitic sister species in most freshwater forms Order Anaspidiformes Anaspida 7 Fossil 2 Order Cephalaspidiformes Osteostracida 7 Fossil l GNATHOSTOMATA Jaws derived from palatoquadrate and meckelian cartilage collagen n rays dermal ossifications trunk muscles divided by horizontal septum mylenated nerve fibers gill skeleton arrangement and gills lateral to skeleton total of 37 characters listed in Maisey Dichotomy of Living Chondrichthys Elasmobranchii 7 Sharks skates and rays and Holocephali 7 Chimeras and Osteichthyes Bony Fish Two Major Extinct Groups 7 Acanthodii and Placodermi CHONDRICHTHYS Defining characteristics 1 Perichondral prismatic calcified tissues Made of hydroxyapatite 2 Claspers in pelvic fin of adultmales 3 Formation of horny egg case by Nidamental Nidamentary gland 4 Maisey lists 10 additional characters Diagnostics heterocercal tail Two distinct subgroups Elasmobranchii sometimes called Selachii and Holocephali HOLOCEPHALI Chimeras rattails Defining characters Teeth in the form of toothplates that are slowly replaced Upper jay element palatoquadrate fused to neurocranium First dorsal spine erectile Clasping organ on head of males Diagnostics Pectoral fins large Tail heterocercal or diphycercal 4 gill slits Large head with conspicuous cephalic lateral line canal system Membership 3 families approx 30 species mostly deepwater marine few species in coastal waters ELASMOBRANCHH or Selachii Defining characters of recent forms Basipterygium fused across midlane Nongrowing dermal denticles Hypaxial caudal skeleton reduced Diagnostics ns nonerectile gill slits 57 Rapid replacement of jaw teeth Membership Sharks and Skates and Rays SHARKS Euselachii Pleurotremata Questionably monophyletic without Batoids Diagnostics gill slits lateral not covered dorsally by expanded pectoral fin fin not joined to head Major groups Squalimorpha Squaliformes Deepwater sharks with spiracle and without anal n Spiny dogfish cookie cutter sharks Galeomorpha shallowwater sharks 39typical39 Smooth dogfish tiger lamnids carcharinids whale basking etc Squatinomorpha angel sharks sometimes placed with the squalimorphs Heterodontus horn sharks a galeomorph Membership 350 spp worldwide marine BATOIDS Rajiformes Hypotremata Skates and Rays Defining characters ventrally placed gill openings Pectoral fins fused anteriorly to head no anal fin palatoquadrate free from neurocranium synarcual anterior vertebrae fused together ventral mouth except in a few derived taxa Included taxa 425 spp several families sawfishes torpedos guitarfishes skates and rays Most marine sawfishes may be brackish potmotrygonid stingrays and some dasyatids freshwater References Bigelow HB and WS Schroeder 1948 Sharks In Fishes of the Western North Atlantic Part 1 Memoir 1 Sears Foundation for Marine Research Yale Univ New Haven Bigelow HB and WS Schroeder 1953 Sawfishes Guitarfishes Skates and Rays In Fishes of the Western North Atlantic Part 2 Memoir 1 Sears Foundation for Marine Research Yale Univ New Haven pp 1514 Bigelow HB and WS Schroeder 1953 Chimeroids In Fishes of the Western North Atlantic Part 2 Memoir 1 Sears Foundation for Marine Research Yale Univ New Haven pp 515563 Brodal A and R Fange eds 1963 The biology of Myxine Universitetsforlaget Oslo 588 pp Compagno LJV 1973 Interrelationships of living elasmobranchs In PH Greenwood RS 1Iiles and C Patterson eds Interrelationships of fishes suppl 1 Zool J Linn Soc 53 1561 Compagno LJV 1977 Phyletic relationships of living sharks and rays Amer Zool 172 Recent advances in the biology of Sharks 303323 Compagno LJV 1984 FAO Species Catalog vol 4 Sharks of the World Part 1 Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes FAO Fish Synop 125 Vol4 Pt 2251655 Compagno LJV 1984 FAO Species Catalog vol 4 Sharks of the world Part 2 Carchariniformes FAO Fish Synop 125 Vol4 Pt 2251655 Fernholm B and C L Hubbs 1981 Western Atlantic hagfishes of the genus Eptapterus Myxinidae with descriptions of two new species Fishery Bull 796983 Garman S 1913 Plagiostoma Sharks Skates amprays Mem Mus Compar Zool 361528 77 pls Gilbert P R Mathewson and D Rall eds 1967 Sharks Skates and Rays Johns Hopkins Press Baltimore xv624 pp Hardisty M W and I C Potter eds 19711982 The Biology of Lampeys 4 vol Academic Press London Hardisty 1979 Biology of Cyclostomes Chapman and Hall London 428 pp Maisey JG 1984 Chondrichthyan phylogeny a look at the evidence J Vert Paleon 43 359371 Maisey JG 1984 Higher elasmobranch phylogeny and biostratigraphy Zool J Linn Soc 823354 Maisey J G 1986 Heads and tails a chordate phylogeny Cladistics 23201256 SchaefferB and MWilliams 1977 Relationships of fossil and living elasmobranchs Amer Zool 172 Recent advances in the biology of Sharks 293302 OSTEICHTHYES De ning Characters branchiostegal rays present interhyal sclerotic ring basihyal and hypohyal ossifications lepidotrichia pleural ribs pectoral girdle element dermal ossification pattern Lauder and Liem 1983 Endochondral bone swimbladderlung derived from gut tissue gular plate quotlawquot teeth on dermal bones not associated with chondral jaw elements Maisey 1986 Erectile unpaired finrays common gill opening fin rays more numerous than supports Major groups of recent osteichthyans Actinopterygians and Sarcopterygians Important fossil groups Acanthodians sister group to Osteichthyans and Placoderms SARCOPTERYGH Lobe finned vertebrates fishes Defining characteristics Enamel pulmonary vein Gill arch structures loss of hypobranchials and pharyngobranchials single basibranchial and CB 4 articulates meidally with the base of CB 3 and not basibranchial series in Squalus Paired fins with unique supporting skeleton and muscular basallobes Subgroups Actinistia and Choanata CDipnoa and Tetrapoda ACTIN39ISTIA Coelacanths Defining characters Branchiostegals lost freely moveable intercranial joint loss of maxilla swimbladder ossified rostral organ present lst dorsal fin rays articulate with single basal plate Diagnostic characters anterior and posterior nostrils 2 dorsal fins diphycercal tail Membership 1 living species Latimeria chaulmnae from Comoros Islands Discovered 1938 Fossil membershipabout 30 species ranging from middle Devonian to Upper Cretaceous CHOANATA De ning characters form of locomotion but may apply to coelacanths nasolacrimal duct similarities in circulatory system especially associated with heart and pulmonary circulation glottis and epiglottis jellycoated egg Widely used term Rhipidistians may be paraphyletic groups with part being more closely related to tetrapods and part to dipnoans Often considered the ancestoral form of tetrapods DIPNOI De ning characteristics Palatoquadrate fused to cranium no marginal toothbearing jaw bones and quotTeethquot in form of paired ridged plates Diagnostics all recent lungfrshes have continuous dorsalcaudal anal fin but fossil forms have primitive fin structures including 2 dorsal fins embedded scales and reduced dermal ossifications Membership Three recent genera Neoceratodus Lepidosiren and Protopterus 4 species Fossils Extensive record at least from the Devonian ACTINOPTERYGH rayfinned fishes De ning characters Lepidotrichia forming segmented finrays single rayed dorsal fin rhomboid scales with anteriorand or dorsal peglike process covered with ganoin mandibular sensory canal encased in dentary bone acrodin coating of teeth Groups Cladistia Chondrostei and Neopterygii Ginglymodi Halecostoma and Teleostei Notes early groups still have heterocercal tail CLADISTIA Bichirs Defining characters Dorsal finspines with branches Spiracular ossicles shape of urohyal and parasphenoid Membership 2 genera Polypterus and Erpetoichthys 10 species all tropical freshwaters of Africa Young Polypterus have external gills adults have highly vascularized lung Chondrostei Neopterygii Swim bladder connects to gut dorsally three ossifications of hyoid bar and interhyal CHONDROSTEI sturgeon and paddlefish De ning charactersfusion of Maxillae premaxillae and dermopalatine39 absence of myodome39 Diangostics heterocercal tail one branchiostegal ray spiral valve intestine body w rows bony plates Sturgeon Acipenseridae 23 species from northern hemisphere fresh and marine waters Paddlefish Polyodontidae 2 species 1Iississippi R and Yangtze R Defining characters paddlelike sonut densely packed gillrakers etc Source of American caviar Recently introduced into Russia for same Neopterygii Gars Halecostomi Amia Teleosts and fossil semionotids Fin rays and supports in ratio of 1139 others Ginglymodi Gars Defining Characters numerous most evident from elongate body form Members two genera Atractosteus Lepisosteus seven recent species Distribution 1Iississippi Drainage Mexico Central America and Caribbean Fossils from broader range of NAmerica northern South America Africa India and Central Europe Australia 7 Note Gars plus Amia traditionally called HOLOSTEI Halecomorphi Bowfins Defining characters Symplectic contributes to articular surface of quadrate Diagnostics abbreviate heterocercal tail many branchiostegals Amiidae Extant Amia calva Nonteleostean Osteichthys References Beamis W W E Burggren and N E Kemp eds 1987 The biology and evolution of lungfishes Alan R Liss Inc New York 383 pp also J Morph Centennial Suppl 1 Bjerring H C 1973 Relationships of coelacanthiforms In P H Greenwood R S 1Iiles and C Patterson eds Interrelationships of fishes suppl 1 Zool J Linn Soc 53179205 pls 12 Lauder G V and K F Liem 1983 The evolution and interrelationships of the actinopterigian fishes Bull Mus Compar Zool 1503 95 1 97 Lund R and W L Lund 1985 Coelacanths from the Bear Gulch limestone N amurian of Montana and the evolution of the Coelacanthiformes BullCarnegie MusNatHist noZS 74 pp McCune AR1987 Toward the phylogeny of a fossil species ock semionotid fishes from a lake deposit in the Early Jurassic Towaca Formation Newark Basin Peabody Mus Nat Hist Bull 43 1 108 Patterson C 1973 Interrelationships of holosteans In PH Greenwood RS 1Iiles and C Patterson eds Interrelationships of fishes suppl 1 Zool J Linn Soc 53233305 Rosen DE PL Forey BG Gardiner and CPatterson 1981 Lungfishes tetrapods Paleontology and plesiomorphy Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 1674 159276 Schaeffer B 1973 Interrelationships of chondrosteans In PH Greenwood RS 1Iiles and C Patterson eds Interrelationships of fishes suppl 1 Zool J Linn Soc 53207232 Suttkus R D 1963 Order Lepisostei In Fishes of the Western North Atlantic Part 3 Memoir 1 Sears Foundation for Marine Research Yale Univ New Haven pp 61 88 VladykovVD and J R Greeley 1963 Order Acipenseroidei In Fishes of the Western North Atlantic Part 3 Memoir 1 Sears Foundation for Marine Resarch Yale Univ New Haven pp 2560 Wiley E0 1976 Phylogeny and biogeography of fossil and recent gars Actinopterygii Lepisosteidae Univ Kansas Mus Nat Hist 1Iisc Publ 64 11 1 1 TELEOSTEI DEFINING CHARACTERS externally symmetrical quothomocercalquot tail with skeletal modifications uroneurals expanded haemal arches as hypurals weakly developed ural centra Modi cation of ventral throat musculature allowing for branchiostegal pumping action Loss of anterior portion of adductor mandibulae Living teleosts also defined by presence of chondral basihyal single basihyal toothplate and basibranchials in Impaired row Paired in early teleosts 3 hypobranchials primitive 7 Notes 20000 living species Cohen 1960 rst known from middle Triassic Four major subgroups Osteoglossomorpha Elopomorpha Clupeomorpha and Euteleostei OSTEOGLOSSOMORPHA bony tongues De ning characters Gut coiling pattern anterior part of gut passes to the le of esophagus and stomach right in both nonteleosts and other teleosts premaxilla firmly fixed to skull bite between basihyal teeth and endopterygoid Diagnostics generally large patch of parasphenoid teeth Membership all freshwater Arawanas Tropical species 2 in Africa 1 in Asia 3 S America and 2 7 Australia Airbreathing known in at least Arapaima Heterotis unusual39 primarily a planktivore in having no parasphenoid teeth and reduced hyoid Mormyrids elephant noses baby whales 300 spp all electrogenic weakly39 enlarged cerebellum Notopterids knife fishes of Asia and Africa few species Undulating locomotion air breathers large bony tongue Hiodontids only N American representatives 2 species Teleosts exclusive of Osteoglossomorpha 2 uroneurals extend anteriorly over 2 nd preural centra ELOPOMORPHA Tarpons bonefishes and quoteelsquot 650 species mostly anguilliform eels De ning Characters leptocephalus larvae39 fusion of angular amp retroarticular39 rostral amp prenasal ossicles Membership diverse array of forms typical teleost body shape of Elops and Megalops to deep sea eels Nearly all are marine with a few brackish water representatives Only the Anguillid eels are truely freshwater and even they require marine waters for reproduction Remaining teleosts retroarticular excluded from joint with quadrate39 gill arch toothplates fused to chondral bones articular fused to angular neural arch of PUl absent CLUPEOMORPHA Herrings and their relatives De ning characters unpaired abdominal scutes otophysic connection swimbladder to posterior neurocranium w expansions of pterotic and prootic as bullae Supratemporal canal passes through parietal Among living clupeomorphs recessus lateralis pareitals separated by supraoccipital39 no foramen in anterior ceratohyal Membership about 300 species five families Denticeps clupeoidesl anchoviesl39 wol ierringsl2 Pristogaster herringsl90 EUTELEOSTEI De ning characters adipose dorsal fin nuptual tubercles Esocoids posteriorly placed dorsal fin adipose fin absent Toothplates on BB4 primitive maxilla toothless Pikes6 and mudminnows5 all northern hemisphere FWF Argentoids and osmeroids smelts Including galaxiids sometimes placed into the Salmoniformes though there is no evidence of a monophyletic group mostly marine many deepwater1Iesopelagic no bioluminescence Salmonidae salmon trout whitefish and grayling 10 genera 70 spp Monophyly still questioned position within euteleosts uncertain OSTARIOPHYSI More than 3000 species virtually all are FWF and therefore 12 of all known FWF Defining characters parietal reduced39 dermopalatine absent39 anterior hemal spines fused to centra anterior 2 ribs attached to swimbladder39 swimbladder divided into anterior and posterior portion connection to gut at junction Includes Gonorynchiforms and quotOtophysiquot Gonorynchiforms include 5 genera African FWF two genera families of coastal marine species OTOPHYSI De ning characters Weberian apparatus consisting of modi cations of anterior neural arch elements parapophyses and pleural rib elements into a chain of ossicles linking the swimbladder to the ear Hypural 2 fused to ural complex PUl U1 U2 UN Otophysi include 4 orders of FWF Cypriniformes Characiformes Gymnotiformes and Siluriformes One or more form the dominant sh of each continent except Australia Cypriniformes 6 families 200 genera 2500 species Northern Hemisphere and Africa No jaw teeth pharyngeal teeth ankylosed onto CB5 no adipose fin Characiformes 10 families 250 genera 1300 species 90 in new World remainder in Africa Teeth replaced from crypts in dermal bones hypural 1 separated from ural centrum Gymnotiformes 6 families 25 genera 50 species S and C America elongate eellike forms with electrogenic ability all but electric eel swims with stiffened body amp undulating anal fin Siluriformes 31 families 400 genera 2300 species all continents including Antarctica fossils typically FWF but 34 families have species that tolerate or thrive in marine waters TELEOSTEI references Balon EK ed 1980 Charrs salmonid fishes of the genus Salvelinus W Junk The Hague 928 pp Fink S V and W L Fink 1981 Interrelationships of the ostariophysan fishes Teleostei Zool J Linn Soc 724297353 Fink W L and S H Weitzman 1982 Relationships of the stomiiform fishes Teleostei with a description of Diplophos Bull Mus Compar Zool 15023193 Forey PL 1973 Relationships of elopomorphs In PH Greenwood RS 1Iiles and C Patterson eds Interrelationships of fishes suppl 1 Zool J Linn Soc 53351368 Gery 1 1977 Characoids of the world T F H Publications Neptune N I 672 pp Grande L 1985 Recent and fossil clupeomorph fishes with materials for revision of the subgroups of clupeoids Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 1812231372 Greenwood PH 1973 Interrelationships of osteoglossomorphs In PH Greenwood RS Miles and C Patterson eds Interrelationships of fishes suppl 1 Zool J Linn Soc 53307332 Greenwood PH DE Rosen SH Weitzman and GS Myers 1966 Phyletic studies of teleostean fishes with a provisional classification of living forms Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 131 4339456 Johnson L and B Burns eds 1984 Biology of Arctic Charr Univ Manitoba Press 584 pp Lauder G V and K F Liem 1983 The evolution and interrelationships of the actinopterigian fishes Bull Mus Compar Zool 150395197 Lindsey C C and C S Woods eds 1970 Biology of coregonid fishes Univ Manitoba Press Winnipeg 560 pp Moser H G editor in chief 1984 Ontogeny and systematics of fishes Amer Soc Ichthyol Herpetol Sp Publ 1760pp Nelson G I 1973 Relationships of clupeomorphs with remarks on the structure of the lower jaw in fishes In PH Greenwood RS Miles and C Patterson eds Interrelationships of shes suppl 1 Zool J Linn Soc 53333349 Roberts T R 1973 Interrelationships in ostriophysans In PH Greenwood RS 1Iiles and C Patterson eds Interrelationships of fishes suppl 1 Zool J Linn Soc53372 Rosen D E 1973 Interrelationships of higher euteleostean fishes In PH Greenwood RS 1Iiles and C Patterson eds Interrelationships of fishes suppl 1 Zool J Linn Soc 53397513 Schaeffer B and D E Rosen 1961 Major adaptive levels in the evolution of the actinopterygian feeding mechanism Amer Zool 1187204 Whitehead P I P 1985 FAO species catalogue Vol 7 Clupeoid fishes of the world Part 1 Chirocentridae Clupeidae and Pristagasteridae FAO Fish Synop 125 71 1303 Whitehead P I P G J Nelson and T Wongratana 1988 FAO species catalogue Vol 7 Clupeoid fishes of the world Part 2 Engraulididae FAO Fish Synop 125 72305579 NEOTELEOSTEI De ning characters retractor arcus branchialium or retractor dorsalis muscle which attaches to pharyngobranchials and anterior vertebrae Appears derived from esophageal muscles Rostral cartilage between premaxillae and neurocranium allows free movement premaxilla ie protrusion Membership Stomiiformes Aulopiformes Myctophiformes Paracanthopterygii Atherinomorpha and Percomorpha STOMIIFORMES De ning characters Peculiar type of photophores branchiostegals fgound on ventral hypohyal peculiar type of tooth attachment Membership 9 families with approx 250 spp Primarily deepsea tropical to temperate species All have some luminescent organs Including Hatchet fishes viperfishes dragonfishes etc Mostly black and or silver AU39LOPIFORMES De ning characters Arrangement of pharyngobranchial elements PBZ and PB3 diverge posteriorly39 and expanded uncinate process of EB 2 contacts PB3 and provides structural bridge Membership Diverse array of shallowwater amp deepsea marine fishes both benthic and mesopelagic Less than 200 spp in 12 families Including Deepsea tripod fishes Bombay duck shallowwater forms include family Synodontidae Lizard fishes in W North Atlantic 3 or 4 of the 25 species are found Sometimes EG Johnson 1984 placed with Myctophiformes into Iniomi MYCTOPHIFORMES De ning characters PB3 enlarged largest toothplate element Members Myctophidae amp Neoscopelidae 6 spp both deepsea and pelagic or benthopelagic240 species Notes Often placed together with the following groups as the Ctenosquamata for widespread occurence of well developed Ctenoid scales But also placed together with Aulopiformes as one of several suborders of Iniomi Myctophids with rows of photophores along belly pattern useful for species recognition and grouping Undergo dramatic vertical migrations daily N elson39s example Day 3001200m39 Night lOl 00m PARACANTHOPTERYGII Defining characters PU2 with full neural spine primitively PU2 w only a basal arch or no arch Other characters are suggested but not universally found or only in quotadvancedquot forms eg anterior vertebrae crowded increased abdominal vertebrae Usually with jugular pelvic fins and spiny dorsal elements Membership Percopsiformes troutperches Including Aphredoderus and NA blind cave fishes 6 spp only FWF Paracanthops single rayed D fin with weak anterior spines Gadiformes Cods 7 families 400 species including Cod hakes and FWF Burbot Lota Aslo Rattail macrourids 250 species benthopelagic O en single mental barbel always cycloid scales D fin wo true spiny rays but with 2 or 3 D fins Wo adipose D n O en Ophidiiformes cusk eels pearl shes Brotulids etc included here othertimes included within Perciformes othertimes as a separate order as a distinctive well defined lineage Batrachoidiformes toad shes 3 families 8090 spp Depressed benthic fishes with small anterior D fin39 scaleless or nearly so Temperate and tropical marine and Neotropical freshwater Sounds produced by swimbladder movements and derived musculature Lophiiformes Angler shes 16 families 250 spp Strictly marine many deep bathypelagic First D fin w 3 rays on head and first spine modified into Ilicium or quotlurequot for prey attraction Sometimes lure capable of producing light Gill opening restricted tubular near Pectoral fin base but not anterior to Pect fin o en used to prop up body and quotWalkquot at least in benthic forms Inc Tropical frogfishes Pietsch 1986 Batfishes tropicalsub seas and deep sea Ceratioid families Gobiesociformes cling shes 2 families 115 spp Body strongly depressed pelvic fins modified into clinging disc which helps fish adhere to hard substratum Distinctly assymetrical heart Includes shallowwater benthic marine species in tropical and temperate zones occassionally in FW Paracanthopterygii joined together with Atherinomorpha and Perciformes into Acanthomorpha Characters Ctenoid scales ascending process of premaxilla allowing for protrusion Also movement of pectoral fin onto lateral ank of body ACANTHOPTERYGII True spiny rays in D and A fin great mobility of upper jaw but protrusability varies within group and may have evolved independently several times Term has varied useage either Atherinomorpha plus Percomorpha or just for Percomorpha In broader context defined by presence of interarcual cartilage extending between the uncinate process of EB1 and the PB2 Elongate symphyseal process of premaxilla allows for upperjaw protrusion ATHERINOMORPHA Silversides killifish flying fishes etc 1080 species 18 families Defining characters Unique pattern of upper jaw suspension that allows for independent left and right movement of premaxillae differs from percimorph condition in lacking ball and socket joint between palatine and maxilla Eggs with long adhesive filaments and numerous oil droplets except in viviparous forms Characterized by poorly developed 1st dorsal fin with feeble spines or none in Cyprinodontiformes and Beloniformes Memberships Several shallow water marine andor freshwater groups lumped into quotatherinoidsquot including Atherinidae silversides Menidia grunion Labidestes NA FWF AustralianNew Guinea rainbow fishes Melanotaeniidae and several other small families Generally very highly set pectoral fins and small 1st dorsal Cyprinodontiformes 9 families 600700 spp killifishes freshbrackish fishes of tropical and temperate waters throughout the world Characterized by true symmetry of caudal skeleton Numerous spp in NA FW Also worldwide Viviparous guppies amp mosquito fishes and Goodeids Annual species complete life cycle in several months in coastal drainages w extended dry seasons Beloniformes needlefishes halfbeaks and ying fishes sometimes called Exocoetoids 160 spp reduced epibranchials 2 and 3 EB 1 dominant PBl lost Baird R C 1971 The systematics distribution and zoogeography of the marine hatchetfishes family Sternoptychidae Bull Mus Compar Zool 14211128 Bertelson E 1951 The ceratioid fishes ontogeny taxonomy distribution and biology Dana Report Carlsberg Foundation Copenhagen 391281 1 pl Bradbury M G 1967 The genera of batfishes Family Ogcocephalidae Copeia 19672399422 Briggs JC 1955 A monograph of the clingfishes Order Xenopterygii Stanford Ichthy Bull 6 1 224 Fink W L and S H Weitzman 1982 Relationships of the stomiiform shes Teleostei with a description of Diplophos Bull Mus Compar Zool 15023193 Johnson RK 1982 Fishes of the families Evermanelliidae and Scopelarchidae systematics morphology interrelationships and zoogeography Fieldiana Zool NS 121252 Parenti L 1981 A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of cyprinodontiform fishes Teleostei Atherinomorpha Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 1684335557 Paxton I R 1972 Osteology and relationships of the lantern fishes Family Myctophidae Bull Nat Hist Mus Los Angeles County Sci No 31 81 pp Pietsch T W and D B Grobecker 1987 Frogfishes of the world systematics zoogeography and behavioral ecology Stanford Univ Press 420 pp 56 pls Rosen DE 1964 The relationships and taxonomic position of the halfbeaks killifishes silversides and their relatives Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 1275 217268 Rosen DE 1973 Interrelationships of higher euteleostean fishes In PH Greenwood RS 1Iiles and C Patterson eds Interrelationships of fishes suppl 1 Zool J Linn Soc 53397513 Rosen DE 1985 An essay on euteleostean classification Am Mus Novitates 2827 57pp Rosen DE and CPatterson 1969 The structure and relationships of the paracanthopterygian shes Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 141 3357474 Weitzman SH 1974 Osteology and evolutionary relationships of the Sternoptychidae with a classification of stomiatoid families Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 153327 478 PERCOMORPHA Poorly defined group that may not be monophyletic quotprimitivequot percomorphs tend to have seperate dorsal fins and pelvic girdle attached to cleithrum of pectoral girdle All except earliest groups have Pelvic I539 Several subgroups some well defined others probably wastebaskets waiting for further resolution BERYCIFORMES Squirrelfishes and their relatives quotprimitivequot percomorphs having Acanthop characters but lacking several derived percomorph derived characters e g loss of orbitosphenoid 18 caudal rays rather than the more derived 1539 3 rather than the more derived 2 epurals but may be natural based on peculiar form of caudal procurrent ray form Marine fish widely distributed in tropical and temperate coastal waters Include Squirrel fishes ashlight fishes pinecone fishes etc Nocturnal or lowlight fishes not found in daylight in shallow waters Heavily armored heads thick bones etc All heavily scaled with stout spines on fins GASTEROSTEIFORMES Sticklebacks pipefishes and seahorses Name from bony stomach39 indicating typical bony plating around body Mouth usually small and tubular Gasterosteidae Sticklebacks 7 spp many morphs Syngnathidae pipefishes and seahorses 230 spp Centriscidae Shrimp shes and snipefishes Aulostomidae and Pegasidae seamoths 5 spp SCORPAENIFORMES mailcheeked shes scorpionfishes and their relatives Mail cheeked comes from character that unites the fishes the suborbital stay a posterior extension of the 3rd suborbital that connects the preopercle39 also hypurals platelike and fused to centrum Usually dermal bones of head with spiny processes caudal n rarely forked Mostly benthic shallow water marine fishes but with groups that seem to have secondarily invaded freshwater cottids cottocomephorids etc Over 1000 species in 20 families Scorpaenoids Include many venomous fishes often slow moving lie and wait predators diversity of forms makes characterization dif cult Internal fertilization common internal development in some species most deposit eggs in clusters with toxic coating Included here stone fishes rockfishes lionfishs seabass searobins Cottoids loss of basisphenoid 300 spp sculpins poachers agonids and lumpfishes Hexagrammoids greenlings dominant NPaci c fauna TETRAODONTIFORMES Often called Plectognathi twisted mouth Pufferfishes boxfishes triggerfishes and relatives 300 species 8 families restricted gill opening branchiostegals covered with thick skin39 loss of infraorbitals nasals and parietals and analfin spines All have peculiar scales as spiny plates one family with bony armor encasing entire body except tail Balistidae triggerfishes and file shes pelvic fin modified entire girdle movable body appears to enlarge when girdle is depressed Dorsal spines modified into locking mechanism that keeps spines erect until proper sequence of spine depression occurs 135 spp Ostraciidae Box shes cow shes marine tropicals 30 spp Molidae Ocean sunfishes 34 spp no caudal skeleton or fin no spines in unpaired fins Puffer shes 3 families fused teeth all but Triodontidae 1 spp capable of swelling by swallowing water or air into branch of stomach 130 spp no spines in ns tetrodatoxin Most nearshore marine few spp in freshwater PLEURONECTIFORMES atfishes Not bilaterally symmetrical one eye migrates to opposite side of heat in post larval shes Asymmetry shows in cranial bones muscles and nerves Optic nerves become twisted long dorsal and anal finbases Although at they are considered compressed not depressed 500 species 6 families Nearly all marine coastal and continental slope Few spp found in freshwater Important foodfish worldwide most are benthic and carnivorous Some are active swimmers nearly like that of symmetrical spp Relationships not based on side of migration Soles amp tongue soles opposite sides apparently close Psettodidae nearly symmetrical PV15 2 spp Citharidae 5 spp both sinestral and dextral Bothidae sinestral le eye ounders 100 spp Pleuronectidae righteye ounders 100 spp Soles 2 families preopercle not free no ribs jaws strongly assymetrical Soleidae dextral 120 spp tropical and temperate Cynoglossidae sinestral continuous connection of D C A fins Burrowing forms 100 spp CHANNIFORMESSnakeheads 12 spp often placed w Anabantoids Lauder place close Swamp eels SYNBRANCHIFORMES swampeels 15 spp diagnosed by conjoined branchial openings midventrally Eellike freshwater fishes no pectoral fins DACTYLOPTERIFORMES ying gurnards 4spp tropical marine spp look superficially like triglids in form and habits LAMPRIFORMES 11 families 40 species Primitive percomorphs with no spines in fins pelvics with many rays more than 5 PERClFORMES All remaining percomorphs little to unite the group and probably not natural 150 families and 7000 species Ruling perches dominant fishes of nearshore marine environments and together with Ostariophysi dominant shes of freshwaters PERCOMORPHA REFERENCES Dawson C E 1985 1ndoPacific pipe shes Red Sea to the Americas Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs 1Liss 230 pp FraserBrunner A 1951 The ocean sunfishes family Molidae Bull Br Mus Nat Hist Zool 1721724 Li S Z 1981 On the origin phylogeny and geographical distribution of the atfishes Pleuronectiformes Trans Chin Ichthyol Soc 198111120 Matsuura K 1979 Phylogeny of the superfamily Balistoidea Pisces Tetraodontiformes Mem Fac Fish Hokkaido Univ 2649169 Norman JR1934 A systematic monograph of the atfishes Heterosomata Brit Mus Nat Hist 1459 pp Pietsch TW 1978 Evolutionary relationships of the sea moths 1 eleostei Pegasidae with a classification of gasterosteiform families Copeia 1978 5 17529 Quast J C Osteological charscteristics and af nities of the hexagrammid fishes with a synopsis Proc Calif Acad Sci 31 563600 Tyler J C 1980 Osteology phylogeny and higher classification of the fishes of the order Plectognathi Tetraodontiformes NOAA Technical Report Natl Marine Fish Circ 4341422 Walters V 1960 Synopsis of the lampridiform suborder Veliferoidei Copeia 19603245247 Walters V and J E Fitch 1960 The families and genera of the lampridiform Allotriognath suborder Trachipteroidei Calif Fish and Game 46441451 Winterbottom R 1974 The familial phylogeny of the Tetraodontiformes Acanthopterygii Pisces as evidences by their comparative myology Smithsonian Contrib Zool 155201 pp Woods LP amp PSonoda1973 Order Berycomorphi Beryciformes pp263396 In Fishes of the Western North Atlantic Part 6 Memoir 1 Sears Foundation Marine Research Yale New Haven Wooton R J 1976 The biology of the sticklebacks New York Academic Press 387 pp Wooton R J 1984 A functional biology of sticklebacks Univ California Press Berkeley 265 pp Zehren S J 1979 The comparative osteology and phylogeny of the Beryciformes Pisces Teleostei Evol Monogr 1389 PERCIFORMES Percoidei Generalized perciforms that cannot be related to any of the other suborders Labroidei or Pharyngognath perciforms all have some level of union of CB5 across the ventral midline In advanced forms the two elements are fused without visable suture In addition esophageal sphincter muscle39 and PB3 articulates directly with ventral surface of neurocranium Labridae Scaridae Pomacentridae Cichildae Embiotocidae 500 75 250 1000 25 wrasses parrotfishes damselfishes surfperches widespread tropical widespread Africa S Pacific coast America Blennioidei benthic inhabitants 9001000 species usually large pectoral fins anteriorly placed small pelvic fins long D and anal fin bases 1 Dorsal if seperate is often small Many tropical families but included here are the quotIce fishes of Antarctic waters that have little or no hemoglobin but have an antifreeze glycoprotein that keeps blood circulating Gobioidei gobies 1500 2000 spp Primarily in Gobiidae 39 several smaller families Loss of several cranial elements including parietals infraorbitals and lateralline canal system Scomberoidei Tunas mackerals etc Fast swimming open water teleosts United by fusion of upperjaw elements to cranium Less than 100 spp Including billfishes Anabantoidei gouramis FWF Africa and Asia 7080 spp Best known for airbreathing ability due to creation of suprabranchial chamber partially separate from branchial chamber Acanthuroids coral reef associated shes 100 spp39 compressed bodied small mouthed fishes D fin continuous mostly herbivorous have peculiar larval form called acronurus PERCIFORMES REFERENCES Allen GR 1975 Damselfishes of the South Seas TFH Publications Neptune City N J 240 pp Allen GR 1980 Butter y and angelfishes of the World Vol2 J Wiley New York pp 145352 Burgess WE 1974 Butter y fishes of the world A monograph of the family Chaetodontidae TFH Publications Neptune City N J 832 pp ColletteBB1963The subfamilies tribes and genera of the Percidae Teleostei Copeia 1963 4 615623 Collette B B and P Banarescu 1977 Systematics and zoogeography of the fishes of the family Percidae J Fish Res Board Canada 34 14501 463 Dooley J K 1978 Systematics and biology of the tilefishes Perciformes Branchiostegidae and Malacanthidae with descriptions of two new species NOAA Tech Rep NMFS Circ411 78pp Fraser T H 1972 Comparative osteology of the shallow water cardinal fishes Perciformes Apogonidae with reference to the systematics and evolution of the family lchthyol Bull Rhodes Univ No 34105pp Fryer G and T D lles 1972 The cichlid shes of the great lakes Oliver and Boyd Edinburgh and TFHPubl Neptune City N J 641 pp Gosline W A 1966 The limits of the fish family Serranidae with notes on other lower percoids Proc Calif Acad Sci Ser 4 33691112 Gosline WA1968 The suborders of perciform fishes Proc US Natl Mus12478 pp Johnson G D 1980 The limits and relationships of the Lutj anidae and associated families Bull Scripps lnstit Oceanogr 241114 Kaufman L and K F Liem 1982 Fishes of the suborder Labroidei Pisces Percoformes phylogeny ecology and evolutionary significance Breviora Mus Compar Zool 47219 pp Liem KF 1963 The comparative osteology and phylogeny of the Anabantoidei Teleostei Pisces Illinois Biol Monogr 30 149 pp Page LM 1983 Handbook of darters TFHPublNeptune City NJ 271 pp Regan CT 1913 The classification ofpercoid fishes AnnMag Nat Hist Ser 8 12111145 Springer V G 1968 Osteology and classification of the shes of the family Blenniidae Bull US Natl Mus No 284 83 pp Stiassny M L J 1981 The phyletic status of the family CichlidaePisces Perciformes a comparative anatomical investegation Netherlands J Zool 312 275314 Vari R P 1979 The Terapon perches Percoidei Teraponidae a cladistic analysis and taxonomic revision Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 1595175340 NOMENCLATURE The need for names 1 communication early names were often cumbersome and as much a diagnosis as a form of communication History of Scientific names PreLinnaean names consisted of a Genus or 39name39 followed by a series of descriptive terms that serve to qualify the name Because of the dif culty in remembering all of these terms Linnaeus invented a shorthand name consisting of only one descriptive term that would be easier to remember This wasn39t intended to replace the formal name Binomial nomenclature however quickly took over as only name with extensive multiterm name having been lost Two problems use two different names for same species and use of same name for two different species International code of zoological nomenclature Principle of priority Species should be known by the first name given to it any subsequently used names are invalid Providing that the name was binomial and first proposed after January 1 1758 and follows minimal rules of format Gave rise to continuing problem of discovery of older names that have been lost in the literature especially in later 18th Cent and early 19th Cent names but has resurfaced as a problem in fishes with the advent of the aquarium hobby and with it aquarium journals in which new names can be proposed but not seen by systematists Any animal given a name previously used for another species must be renamed Second set of problems arises form idea of linking relationships of organisms to names Genus name serves two functions which sometimes con ict Genus name is often used to emphasize distinctiveness of a species othertimes it is used to join species into groups that are of generally similar appearance yet othertimes the geneological closeness is used Each of these three approaches may result in providing a species with a different quotcorrectquot genus name Same trichotomy of uses occurs at higher levels for example family with same result Common or vernacular names American shery society acted in 194039s to standardize vernacular names for American freshwater and marine fishes Currently an updated version of quotA list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada is published with a vernacular name and the currently accede scientific name The AF S has decided to expand the concept of standardized common names to include all species that have some commercial importance in the US That includes food and aquarium shes NOMENCLATURE Robins CR RM Bailey CE Bond IR Brooker EA Lachner RN Lea and WB Scott 1980 A list of common and scienti c names of shes from the United States and Canada Fourth Edition American Fisheries Society Special Publication No 12 Bethesda MD 174 pp International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1985 International code of zoological nomenclature Third edition University California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles 338 pp Fish and man Sport Angling spearfishing Hobby Aquarium keeping photography UW photo sightseeing Food 1987 catch in US estimated at 25 million metric tons or 56 billion pounds Valued at 16 billion dollars landed Worldwide 922 million metric tons of sh and shell sh taken in 1986 Consumer expenditure for fishery products in 1987 288 billion Including resturant carryout retail and products Americans eat 154 pounds per person per year Salmon most valuable fish in total sales Pollock and menhaden were caught in larger quantities but command a much lower price Personnel involved in shery 346 thousand in 1987 Aquaculture Only catfish as food fishes trout cultured as recreational fish and various minnows in baitfish industry Catfish culture very new 5 million pounds cultured in 1970 in 1987 280 million Clothing quotEelquot Skin leather Politics Tellaco Dam Westway
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