Class Note for ECOL 482 with Professor Reinthal at UA
Class Note for ECOL 482 with Professor Reinthal at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Teleost Radiation Teleostean radiation BIG 20000 species Others put higher 30000Stark1987 Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates About 12 living vertebrates teleosts Tetrapods dominant land vertebrates teleosts dominate water First Triassic 240 my Originally thought nonmonophyletic many independent lineages derived from quotpholidophoridquot ancestry Moreor less established teleostean radiation is true monophyletic group Teleost Monophyly Lauder and Liam support thls notion l Mopile premaxlllarnutmublle llKE maxllla naleeostornes ninged premaxilla rnodineation Enhancln suetion generanun values asie struemral development ortrulvrnopile prernaxilla enaplingiaw protrusion Jaw protrusion evolved independently stimes in teleostean radianon l 0stariopnvsi rCypnnlfurmEs 2 Atnennornorpna and 2 Pemumurpha respeclally eertain derived pereornorpns r eienlids and laproid allies PREMAXlLLA Teleost Monophyly Lauder amp Liem support notion 2 Unpaired basibranchial tooth plates trend consolidation dermal tooth patches in pharynx Primitive whole bucco pharynx w irregular tooth patches consolidate into functional units modi ed w n teleostei esp functional pharyngeal jaws Teleost Monophyly Lauder ancl Liem support this notion 3 Internal carotid foramen enclosed in parasphenoid are all characters functional maybe don39t have one why should they Teleost Tails Most interesting structure in teleosts is caudal n Teleosts possess caudal skeleton differs 39om other neopterygian shes Possible major functional signi cance in Actinopterygian locomotor patterns Halecomorphsginglymodes caudal n rays articulate with posterior edge ofhaemal spines and hypurals modi ed haemal spines Fin is heterocercal inside and out Glnulvmudr Gals Tails Chondrostean hingequot at base of upper lobe weakness btw body and tail lobe Asymmetrical tail asymmetrical thrust with respect to body axis Teleost Tail Teleusts l ural neural arenes Elungated lnte ureneurals Ural neural arenes rneulneu lnm ureneurals r s lnen upperlube and serve alse as lnsenlen slte reruersalnn rays 2 Preural and ural eentra ls lmpunam Esp WlntElEustEl Where numbers anuruslens are Slgnl cant Preurals eany nerrnal naernal arenes and splnesr ural eentra carry hypurals Euundary marred by eauual artery and veln a The hypurals Expanded 7 mm a bmad plate internally asymmetrlcal but eltternally symmetncal tall nn Teens Early teleosts uroneurals small Advanced teleosts uroneurals extend across centra eliminate line ofllexion in upper lobe Functionally assumed symmetrical tail means symmetrical thrust Lauder Found continuous locomotion hypurals appear to distort and twist resulting in anterioventrally inclined thrust asymmetrical Fast start accelerations strain patterns consistent with symmetrical anteriorly directed thrust CLO cunllnuuus lucumullun rs taststan Other Teleost Traits Teleosts naye Mauthner systern e speclallzed nerye cells Located ln rnedulla 7 two glant nerve cells 7 eacn accornpanled by two enlarged dendntes tnat synapse Wltn acoustlc ylll nerye Clrcultry underlylng tne allrfllp escape reflex lncludes a par of glant rnedullary neurons called Mauthner cells Posslblyr rapld escape actlonsfunctlonal adyantage of teleostean caudal structurer lrnportant olologlcal role TAXONOMY AT LAST Four major groups 1 Osteoglossomorpha 2 Elopomorpha 3 Clupeomorpha 4 Euteleostei this last group is enormous and complex Osteoglossomprph Osteogtossornorpns bony tongues e rnost pnytogenetrcauy pnrnrtrye hvmg teteosts Prrstrossrts known rrorn Upper uurassrc 163444 rny Group oenyes narnerrorn presence or tongue 7 Paraspnenoro orte tnat rs yery WeH oeyetopeo rn sorne members Have targe tootn ptates on tnetongue oasrnyat and pastorancnrats tnat oppose tne paraspnenorotootnptates Prey capture rs rnrtraHy oy rnertrat suctron 7 once We expandmg cone tongueebtte resutts rn prey processes Osteoglossomprph Numbercharactenstms snareo byhvmg osteogossornorpns Twu are 1Pecutrararran ernentorgutano 2 Presence ora pecutraryertrat process on nypoorancnra s 2 and a Lauoerano Ltem s nypomesrs orosteogtossornorpn rrterretatronsnrps Dwed rnto WEI rnarn gruups A Osteogtossoroer and a Notopteroroer Agosteugtussmdet Osteogtossurn 2 sp 5 A amp Scteropages 2 sp tnora amp s Asra unrteo rn osteogtossroae Pantooon 15 WestArnca rPaerdurmdaE Araparrnroae Heterotrs 15 West Arnca Araparrna 15p Suum Arnenca AH eyotyeo rnoutn orooorng oenayror ano rnterestrngty rt rs paternat rrsn tnat brands Osteoglossomprph Neotopteroidei Neotopteroidei Tremendous mormyrid radiation Well establIshed group peculiar type of otoph sic connection btw ear and swimbladder also strangely mo ilied ventral branchial muscles Morm ridae widespread A 39ican family nearly 200 species descr ed and Gymnarcus niloticus and together called Mormyriformes African species are electroreceptive while lndian species are not Hiodontidae2 species Hiodon tergisus moone e and Hiodon msoides goldeye V despread throughout mi dle North erIca paragunmm Mmm Mormyriformes dominate Why group within lineage is so quotsuccessfulquot or speciose Mormyrids widely distributed throughout subSaharan Africa Riverine group Show variation in feeding regime mostly bottom insectivores two mormyrus and gynarchus are piscivores And Polimyrus isidori is a midwater plankton feeder seen in aquarium it feeds on bottom Mormyriformes dominate Most nocturnal Small eyes lack bright coloration Complex social communication via unique electrical modality Electric communication used in aggression courtship and appeasement and in identifying sex species and individual Electroreception believed that electroreception is ancestral vertebrate sense widely present in lower aquatic vertebrates appears to have been lost in teleostean ancestry V thin the teleostei has been reevolved at least twice Osteoglossomorphs Ostariophysans cat shes and gymnotid eels Lateral line 7 eempia sensurysystem r cutaneuus sensury urgans MurmynfurmsrWeaklyelectricfish Electric ur an lntal uver head and trunk detect pressure Waves in Water 7 Mer fish sue called distamtuuch abilityr in sumeteleusts r mudifie rme electrurecepturs mudified muscle issue Organ discharges eerr inuuusly current can tfeel urdu any damage eak Cumrastswithstrun ElectrlcflshrElectrlceelGymnutldae generates shucks D vultsandlampere Preycapture Evice Eerure Electrureceptlun in shes discweredthls mnererree caused a pmblem Wh aren tweak electricfishes evulving lntu strum electricfishes Answer duing aernererrtmrrr rnm preyca ure Electrureceptiun naviganun and cummunica err Weak because energy cust er a eermrrueus strung field Wuuld be pmhibitively high TAXONOMY AT LAST Four major groups 1 Os 0g oss 0 ha 2 Elopomorpha 3 Clupeomorpha 4 Euteleostei this last group is enormous and complex Elopomorpha 2 elopocephalan lineages Elopomorpha amp Clupeomorpha long time included together clearly two distinct teleostean Hneages Elopomorpha comprising about 650 species most Elopomorphs primarily marine shes Earliest fossils from Cretaceous 110 my Why elopomorphs united 1 Leptoce narus aNar drscovered 1777 drstrnct group of Shes ecogmzedraruae centuryrater Erongate compressed nearry transparent body Serres or myomeres covers most or raterar area ortne body Head smaH compared Wrth body and rudrments or dorsar anar and pectorar nns are present Basrc structure or reptocepnarus rs same rn aH Eropomorpns Why elopomorphs united 2 Fusrun maneurar and retruamcurarpunes urouertaw vmuawautereustsaneurarpunerusedwrtnamcurars Erupumumhshavemsrun between dermar aneurarand enducnundrar retruamcurar r rurmrne an anuururreuuamcurar erement 3 Presence urrustrar and renasarussrcres essrcresassucratedwrtn acuustrcurateranssvstemt atex endsuvenereu shead unmuerv erupumurpns havevarrabre number maddmunar dermar canar peannm ussrcresrnrostrarreerunrurmrnepune Elopomorpha 5 major groups Eroprds tenpoundersy Eroprdae e tenpounders Maran manne rn troprcar and suotroprcar oceans Megaroprds tarpons e Megaroprdae e tarpons Troprcar and suotroprcar manne artnougn tarpon enters freshwater Arourordstarounds and pterotnnssrds Arourordere a ourords ponensnes and narasaurords Deep sea Sprrry eers AngurHords eers e Byfar rargest group or eropomorpns are anouruords rgramrnes 147 genera and over 600 specres Saccopharyngords 7 Most orzarre e 3 genera M specres TAXONOMY AT LAST Four major groups 1 g 5 r 51 2 0m 53 3 Clupeomorpha 4 Euteleostei this last group is enormous and complex Clupeomorpha Clupeomorpha clearly defined aggregates of living teleosts five families with about 300 species but unsurpassed in terms of biomass and importance for fisheries Largest taxon of nondomesticated vertebrates harvested by man Total world fish catch 1991 at 6070 million tons Clupeoid populations striking increases and precipitous declines Peruvian anchoveta Engraulis ringens increased from negligible fishery 195039s to 812 million tons 196039s crash to 2 million tons 1973 Decline associated with recruitment failure caused by El Nino combined with management policy that led to over fishing Features of Clupeids Neurocranium architecture two prominent foramena temporal bordered by frontals amp parietals and auditory foramen bordered by prootic exoccipital amp basioccipital Unique caudal skeleton urostyle composed of uroneural one fused with last preural centrum Hypural 1 is autogenous Unique otophysic connection between swim bladder and inner ear Recessus lateralis chamber in pterotic bone Also unique is Otophysic connection SNimbladders anterior extension lodge within two ossified bullae Who are clupeids Denticipitoidei known only from extant monotypic genus Denticeps Strange little sh covered in denticles Engraulidae Anchovies 16 genera 140 species worldwide Characteristic snout overhanging mouth Chirocentridae wolf herrings one of few predatory clupeoids Dussumieriidae round herrings 7 genera and about 10 species Clupeidae herrings shads and menhadens 50 genera and 190 species Denticeps and Shad can me u slncnm1 a we usua y eusw drshngmshec a mad by me 4m max me upper m due mm mm bewnd we Vowev wow
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