Second Week of Notes
Second Week of Notes ANTH 10000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Viktoryia Zhuleva on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 10000 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Richard Blanton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Anthropology in Liberal Arts at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Lecture 3: A bipedal Ape: the direct ancestor of humans, the Hominids (early hominid 5-7 MYA). Cranium becomes really heavy Genus Australopithecus – southern type of ape, became extinct. Compare pelvises of ape, austral, modern human and their feet. Migration of the Foramen Magnum to a general location of the base of the cranium. Some hominid ape populations begin to colonize Savanna Figure 1 Compare pelvises of different species (Grassland) habitats about 7 MYA - This corresponds with “C4” grasses - “C4” grasses are more drought resistant, grow faster and are more production Difference between C4 and C3 grasses The perennial grasses can be classified as either C3 or C4 plants. These terms refer to the different pathways that plants use to capture carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. All species have the more primitive C3 Figure 2 Savanna (Greenland) pathway, but the additional C4 pathway evolved in species in the wet and dry tropics. The first product of carbon fixation in C3 plants involves a 3-carbon molecule, whilst C4 plants initially produce a 4- carbon molecule that then enters the C3 cycle. These differences are important because the two pathways are also associated with different growth requirements. C3 plants are adapted to cool season establishment and growth in either wet or dry environments. On the other hand, C4 plants are more adapted to warm or hot seasonal conditions under moist or dry environments. A feature of C3 grasses is their greater tolerance of frost compared to C4 grasses. C3 species also tend to generate less bulky than C4 species; however, feed quality is often higher than C4 grasses. Advantages of bipedalism 1) Avoid predatory attacks: Creatures which use two feet for their movement are able to stand. This generally improves their ability to see far and wide. As such they can be able to detect danger from afar which enables them to take the next action in course. 2) Search and transportation of food: Because bipedal creatures can stand and view their surroundings with ease, they are able to locate food from afar. They are also able to transport this food with them using their forelimbs for very long distances which is quite a challenge for animals that walk on fours to do. Bipedalism therefore offers a great survival opportunity. 3) Free forelimbs: Aside from using their forelimbs to carry food, a bipedal is able to use the forelimbs for many other functions. In birds, the forelimbs are used for flying, in primates for digging, in some animals for manipulation of their surroundings while for bears in combat. In man, the forelimbs help him to use his tools properly. 4) Diet: Because of their capability to stand upright, they have a better diet because of their ability to choose from a wide range of food which consequently results to healthier offspring. Due to a better diet, there is a lot of potential to live long and grow fully. Savanna adaptation disadvantages - exposure to predators - loss of customary food sources (but primates have omnivorous diet) - rapid change in skeletal structure Australopithecus: bipedal, ape-like, brain (the same cranial capacity as apes). Partial adaptation to terrestrial way of life Genus Australopithecus 4 to 1 MYA - this was a successful way of life that resulted in an adaptive radian in Africa: many new species Savanna - living Monkey (terrestrial adaptation) (e.g. Savanna Baboons) - are exposed to predation - live in large groups for mutual defense (other mammals, who live in open habitats tend to live in groups) - males are larger and powerful with large incisor and canine teeth (sexual dimorphism) Hominization, Phase 1 - bipedalism - base camp system - tooth/jaw - reduction in most species of australopithecine - probable increase in carrying, throwing and food sharing Recitation #2 notes: Theory of Mind: It is generally defined as the specific cognitive ability to make inferences about mental states - beliefs, willings, drives, etc. - of ourselves and of others. Such ability allows us to understand that metal states could be the cause of behaviors of the others and that therefore such behaviors can be predicted. Machiavellian Intelligence: is the capacity of an entity to be in a successful political engagement with social groups.
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