Week #3: Enzymes
Week #3: Enzymes BIO 183
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Huryn on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 183 at North Carolina State University taught by Dr. Miriam Ferzli in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to Bio Cell/ Micro in Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Anna Huryn Week #3: BIO 183 Dr. Miriam Ferzli Enzymes Chemical Reactions: Chemical reactions can be: Exergonic = “energy outward” or releases free energy into its surroundings (spontaneous) Endergonic = “energy inward” or absorbs free energy from its surroundings (not spontaneous) Reactions always work towards being at equilibrium; in a closed system, once reactions reach equilibrium they can do no work Metabolic disequilibrium is one of the defining features of life Metabolic Pathways: Metabolic pathways = the totality of an organism’s chemical reactions is called metabolism There are two types of pathways: Catabolic = A sequence of degradative chemical reactions that break down complex molecules into smaller units, usually releasing energy in the process Anabolic = The series of chemical reactions that constructs or synthesizes molecules from smaller units, usually requiring input of energy (ATP) in the process Cellular Work: There are three types of work: mechanical, transport, and chemical ATP powers all work Enzymes: Enzymes = biological catalysts that increase the speed of a chemical reaction most enzymes are proteins enzymes function in small amounts and are reusable enzymes work by lowering the reaction’s activation energy, they form an enzyme- substrate complex (ES complex) activation energy = the energy required to break the existing bonds and begin a reaction substrate = the molecule the enzyme acts on all enzymes have one or more active sites active site = a place to fit a specific type of substrate Anna Huryn Week #3: BIO 183 Dr. Miriam Ferzli most enzymes are highly specific, when the substrate binds to the enzyme it changes into the shape of the enzyme (induced fit) Factors Affecting Enzymes: Cofactors (coenzymes) = organic molecules that are required by certain enzymes to carry out catalysis, they bind to the active site of the enzyme and participate in catalysis but are not considered substrates of the reaction. Inhibitors = compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination *there are two types of inhibitors: competitive and noncompetitive
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