Class Note for ECOL 600B at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
LEVELS OF SELECTION We usually think of natural selection as acting on genes or on individuals but there is long history of consideration of selection acting on populations within species Selection actually occurs at many levels notably Species Groups populations within a species Individuals within a population or species Cells within an individual Mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes within a cell 1 Intracellular selection Meiotic drive Genes that disobey Mendel s law that alleles segregate in meiosis so each allele has probability 12 of being in a gamete Selfish genes or genomes Duplicative transposable elements Increase in number in genome because replicate when chromosme replicates and when they transpose Suppressive petite mutants in yeast p wild type Grows on nonfermentable ethanol or fermentable glucose substrates p Mutation in mtDNA blocks mito protein synthesis of components of electron transport chain Grows on glucose but makes small petite colonies Yeast contains Intracellular population of mt genomes Normally homoplasmic Mate haploid p X p 9 diploid zygotes heteroplasmic p p Vegetative segregation mitotic division of diploids 9 homoplasmic daughter cells Suppressive petites some daughter cells p some p Hypersuppressive petites 100 of daughters are p because p mtDNA molecules replicate faster than p These mutants have unconditional advantage so not included in further discussion Selection on organelle genomes Intracellular selection for antibiotic resistant mtDNA or chNA genomes Yeast erythromycin binds to mito ribosomes and blocks protein synthesis and hence ox phos Wild type erys cells don t grow on nonfermentable substrate in presence of antibiotic Mutant eryr cells do grow Mate R X S 9 heteroplasmic R S zygote 9 grow on glycerol erythromycin 9 all progeny homoplasmic R Intracellular selection R genomes replicate more often than the S genomes in the presence of antibiotic mechanism unknown Origin of resistant cells in presence of erythromycin wild type cells sit around until a mutation occurs in a cell and mutant allele increases in nulnber until there are enough copies to make cell resistant and it starts to grow Consequences for evolution of organelle genes 39 Looks like directed mutation mutation induced by selective agent 39 Affects mutation rate at cell level 9 increased rate of advantageous mutations and decreased detrimental mutation rate at cell level Intracellular populations of organelle genomes also show random drift Relaxed genomes 39 Organelles selected at random for replication until nulnber of copies is doubled 39 Organelles partitioned between daughter cells randomly 2 Intercellular selection Selection on cells within multicellular organisms Multicellular organism is a population of cells with some degree of independence Plastid genomes in plants mutations in cp or nuclear genes causing loss of chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis In plants with mixture of green and white cells some white mutants cause cells to grow and divide more slowly 2 Group selection If population is subdivided into groups populations demes etc then if one group has a trait that allows it to survive and replace other groups that do not have the trait this can be viewed as selection at the level of groups George C Williams argued that this was extremely unlikely because 1 It only takes a small amount of migration between groups 2 1 migrant per generation to make them behave almost like a single randommating population Valid argument but doesn t exclude group selection when groups have lower migration rate 2 There are many more individual generations than episodes of extinction and recolonization per unit time so individual selection should be faster stronger Therefore selection at level of groups cannot fix a trait that is detrimental at the level of individuals Problem Speed of gene fixation under selection depends not only on number of generations per unit time but also on selection coefficient and effective size of group Also ignores cases where selection at both levels is in same direction 3 Species selection Consider two species species A with trait on species B with trait 3 If trait or causes species to either speciate more often or go extinct less often than trait 3 then eventually descendants of species A will replace those of species B This is specieslevel selection Net rate of speciation speciation rate extinction rate Common features of selection at all levels L4 L9H A1 Here coalescent has allele genotype trait A1 Changes to A2 in one lineage which consequently has higher net speciation rate Important point Could use same diagram for any level 0 Pedigree of antibioticresistant and sensitive organelle genes within a cell 0 Pedigree of green and white cells in a leaf 39 Pedigree of more and less fit alleles of a gene or of individuals with more and less fit genotypes in asexual popualtion 39 Groups in a species with traits causing differential extinction and recolonizaiton 39 Species with traits causing different net rrates of speciation Levels of selection as nested trees ILI39ILILIIJ A 3 A1gt A2 Williams 1992 Natural Selection Domains Levels and Challenges Recognized the above point Talked about natural selection acting at many levels on codiceds units of information Called this clade selection Unfortunate terminology Also unfortunately included section titled Species Fallacies which seems to deny that species are significant units of evolution
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