Class Note for NATS 101 at UA 3
Class Note for NATS 101 at UA 3
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Tropical Update Katrina Lack of wind shear large change of wind speed andor direction with height provided favorable conditions for storm intensification as it approached land Category 4 gt130 mph winds storm when it hit the coast Worst flooding of the century Most expensive hurricane to date in LlS gt Infrared IR satelllte 1magerV mov1e gt Storm 3 DaV Forecast New tropical storms coming gt Infrared IR satellite imagerv Weather and Climate Weather The exact state of the atmosphere at a specific time and place Elements of weather are 0 air temperature 0 air pressure 0 humidity o clouds comprised of water droplets andor ice crystals 0 precipitation rain snow sleet hail etc o visibility how far you can see 0 wind horizontal motion of air Climate The statistics of weather at a particular place for a specified window of time Examples of climate 0 monthly averaged temperature and precipitation 0 average number of cloudy days in a month 0 frequency of days with snow or rain in a year Climate is what you expect weather is what you get Meteorology Meteorology The study of the atmosphere and its phenomena 0 340 BC Aristotle wrote a book entitled Meteorologica summarizing knowledge about weather and climate At this time everything that fell from the sky were called Meteors hence the term Meteorology o 2000 years later invention of weather instruments gave birth to genuine meteorology 1500s Galileo s crude thermometer to measure temperature 1643 Torricelli s mercury barometer to measure pressure 1719 Fahrenheit invents the temperature scale 178O deSaussure invents the hair hygrometer to measure humidity 1940s upper air balloon measurements began 1950s computers came into widespread use to solve mathematical equations that describe the behavior of the atmosphere 1960 first weather satellites launched Tiros I 1990s Doppler radars replace conventional radars measuring winds as well as precipitation Tucson Weather U of A Observations 28 Aug 29 Aug 2005 Temperature red Dew Point green Relative Humidity M n M46 3100 so 0 i 39 i w 2 E 60 l N1ght l s 8 i 5 x E 407 Day cu D4 H1 Q 20 hi 0 o i i 1555 0055 0955 1555 005 0955 2 55 Local Local Wind Speed red Peak Gust green Wind Direction Meterss Degrees 55 lESS anss muss news l255 0 55 lESS anss muss news 2 55 Local Local Time Time Think about this Why does relative humidity go down during the day and up at night in Tucson Why does wind speed increase during the day decrease at night Tucson Weather U of A Observations 12 UTC 05 LT 29 Aug 2005 050829120072274 TUS LIFT 2KINX39 ZQCAPE 23 LCLP 738PWAT 23 100 Temperature 130 D G s 5 U U G s D More to think about At what level does the temperature first increase with height What are the wind speed and direction above this level Below How does the humidity dew point change above and below this level Fig 1 10 p16 13 2005 Thomson Bornon Satellite Imagery How would you describe the cloud and humidity conditions over the state of Arizona a clear little water vapor X b clear lots of water vapor c partly cloudy lots of water vapor d partly cloudy little water vapor Go to Visualization gt KEV W com quotum m Wavm 7mm 7 Slalmnaw rm ww Dccmded mm V 39 x I munaemmm a Ugmvam x 3mm Mama 5 Ram shower wm mrecuun N1 wmdspeed E Mu ms DmsYhamxnn ErmMuh Fig 1 11 p17 n ms Thurman Aammmm Fig 112 119 Fig 113 120 Mons Yhummn Bunkcm a e m kM u Fig 114 p21 a was mmn 50mm Tornado Rotating column of air that extends down from the base of a thunderstorm Aka twister cyclone Typically less than 1 kilometer km Wide Winds may exceed 200 knots most less than 125 knots May not reach the ground Fig 115 p21 Fig 1 16 p22 mm mmm gtErmhCma Tucson Climate 2005 monsoon season rainfall totals versus normal for selected areas in southeast Arizona June 15th through August 23th mm sum 1 5 am m 737 mu m 593 3 935 l u 5 m 511 o a mu 5 m z 333 u 327 336 E n 221 12 Illcsnlllm39l nonnlns unnales srerralnstn smmnn Vlnllcox Oracle DruanPlue Clmnll Alnlon Alrlmrl Alrllnn I 2005 19712000 normal 2005 Monsoon Rainfall compared to 30year average This figure compares this year s monsoon rainfall blue with 30 year average monsoon rainfall green Source httpWWWthnoaagovtwcmonsoon dewpointtrackerphp Climate of Hurricanes June 1 June 20 July 10 Sept 10 Oct 20 Nov 10 Dec 20 o gt N 2 Aug 1 Aug 20 Oct 1 Dec 1 1 10 100 90 80 7O 60 50 4O 3O 20 10 Number of Storms per 100 Years Hurricanes and Tropical Storms L Hurricanes NOAA Hurricane frequency per month This figure shows how many hurricanes occur within a given month over the past 100 years Source httphurricanesnoaagovprepareseasonzoneshtm Climate of Hurricanes CAT 3 0R GREATER T gt M gt U 3 2 3 v o 0 lt1 2 g lt m 0 z o NAMED NAMED ATLANTIC BASIN SYSTEMS EASTERN PACIFIC BASIN SYSTEMS 8 m 7 AVERAGE CUMULATIVE NUMBER OF 5 AVERAGE CUMULATIVE NUMBER OF SYSTEMS PER YEAR 395 SYSTEMS PER YEAR 6 a 92 5 PERIOD OF RECORD 19442002 HURRICANES g PERIOD OF RECORD 19661996 HURRICANES 4 E 2 3 z 40 2 1 CAT 3 0R GREATER Jan 1 Feb 1 Mar 1 niT gtw an gtu magagg2 23 m NOAA lt aquot NOAA Cumulative hurricane frequency over a year This figure shows the average cumulative number of systems per year Average based on 19661996 time period Source httphurricanesnoaagovprepare seasonzoneshtm Climate of Hurricanes aEmEr m Most likely hurricane track for September This gure shows the most likely path of a hurricane for the month of September Source httphurricanesnoaagovprepareseasonizoneshtm Wind Barbs Department of Atmospheric Sciences Universitg of l39l39linois at UrhanaChampann Calm 5 Knots 10 Knots 15 Knots 20 Knots 50 Knots 65 Knots Wind barb is in yellow Indicates both direction and speed Numbers on the left are temperature top and dew point bottom Number on the right is the approximate height of a pressure surface above mean sea level Here it is the 1000 mb height The barb indicates winds from the northeast or a northeasterly wind The winds are soulhweslward blowing towards the southwest Each short barb represents 5 knots nautical mile per hourl 15 mphl9 km per hour a long barb is 10 knots Here the wind speed is 15 knots or about 17 mph Source httpww2010atmosuiuceduGhguidesmapssfcobswndrxml Eye of a Hurricane Clea
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