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ANTR350 - Chapters 10 and 11

by: Jenay DeCaussin

ANTR350 - Chapters 10 and 11 ANTR 350

Marketplace > Michigan State University > ANTR 350 > ANTR350 Chapters 10 and 11
Jenay DeCaussin
GPA 3.96
Human Gross Anatomy
Lindsey Jenny

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About this Document

Notes taken from entire book chapters including learnsmart questions and figures. Highlighted material is content that is pertinent to know according to the professor.
Human Gross Anatomy
Lindsey Jenny
Class Notes
Human Gross Anatomy, ANTR350, honors, anatomy
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenay DeCaussin on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTR 350 at Michigan State University taught by Lindsey Jenny in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.

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Date Created: 01/26/16
gh10 Muscle and Tissue0rganizatio muscular system muscles are organs because they contain epithelial connective and nervous tissue 0 over 700 skeletal muscles 0 however muscle is distributed over the entire body 0 also are cardiac muscles and smooth muscles Properties of Muscle Tissue O O excitability response to stimuli contractility causing cells to shorten generates tension elasticity recoils ability to return to original length extensibility extending in response to contracting opposing muscle Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle Tissue o striated attached to multiple bones thousands of bers 0 consists of epithelial connective muscle and nervous tissues Functions of Skeletal Muscle Tissue Body movement 0 Maintenance of posture Temperature regulation 0 heat from regular muscle contractions maintains normal body temperature 0 Storage and movement of materials 0 circular muscle bands called sphincters contract at the openings or ori ces of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts voluntary Support 0 skeletal muscle in at sheet along cavity walls to protect and support weight of area 0 abdominal muscle holds organs in place Gross Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle skeletal muscle bers blood vessels and nerves connective tissue sheets fascicles are bundles of muscle bers 0 cylindrical structures called myo brils composed of myo laments endomysium o delicate areolar innermost connective tissue layer that surrounds and electrically insulates each muscle ber 0 has reticular bers that held bind together neighboring muscle bers and support capillaries near bers perimysium o surrounds the fascicles o dense irregular connective tissue sheath 0 contains arrays of blood vessels and nerves neurovascuar bundles that branch to supple each fascicle 0 all 3 connective tissues are ensheathed by deep fascia expansive sheet of dense irregular conn tissue that separates individual muscles binds together muscles with similar functions and forms sheaths to help distribute nerves blood vessels and lymphatic vessel and to ll spaces between muscles 0 deep fascia is deep to super cial fascia composed of areolar and adipose connective tissue separates muscle from skin Blood Vessels and Nerves o extensive network of blood vessels and nerve bers extends through both epimysium and perimysium o deliver nutrients and oxygen to muscle bers for production of ATP also remove wastes neurons that stimulate muscle contraction are called motor neurons said to innervate muscle bers with muscles 0 each motor neuron has a long extension called an axon or nerve ber that transmits a nerve impulse to a muscle ber axon travels through epimysium and perimysium and delivers impulse into one muscle ber in endomysium 0 neuromuscularjunction is junction between axon and ber Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle contains many mitochondria energy need and lysosomes main structures Ttubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum transverse tubules Ttubulesquot deep invaginations of sarcolemma that extend into sarcoplasm of skeletal muscle bers as network of narrow membranous tubules 0 muscle impulses generated when nerve impulse reaches sarcolemma pass through stimulating and coordinating muscle contractions sarcoplasmic reticulum SR internal membrane complex similar to smooth endoplasmic reticulum 0 stores calcium ions needed to initiate muscle contraction 0 blind sacs of SR are terminal cisternae and pairs of them are reservoirs and speci c sites for calcium ion release to initiate muscle contraction interact with T tubules 0 two terminal cisternae and central Ttubule triad muscle bers are multinucleated groups of embryonic cells myoblasts fuse to form single muscle bers 0 myoblasts that done fuse embryonic cells in adult skeleton called satellite cells may be stimulated to differentiate if a muscle is injured and asst in repairregeneration Myo bris and Myofiaments sarcoplasm contains thousands of long cylindrical myo brils that extend length of muscle ber 0 during contraction they shorten as their component proteins change position 0 attached to ends of muscle ber 0 shortening of myo brils contraction of muscle 0 consists of bundles of short myo laments many groupings run length of myo bril Thick and Thin Filaments compose myo laments thick laments assembled from bundles of protein myosin heads form crossbridges during contraction by binding thick laments to actin in thin laments thin laments composed of proteins actin tropomyosin and troponinbinding site for calcium ions primarily composed of two strands of the protein actin twisted around each other in helix Organization of a Sarcomere In both A and bands 0 H zone light central region ofA band only thick laments present at relaxation but thin laments are pulled into zone at max contraction and zone disappears 0 M line thin transverse protein meshwork structure in center of H zone of a relaxed ber serves as attachment site for thick laments and keeps thick laments aligned during contraction and relaxation 0 Z discline thin transverse protein structure in center of l band attachment site for thin lament ends circular connectin quotcablelikequot protein extending from X discs to M line through core of each thick lament maintains thick lament alignment with sarcomere coiled so that they are compressed in contraction and produce passive tension nebulin actinbinding protein that is part of l band of sarcomere length proportional to length of thin lament ruler Contraction of Skeletal Muscle Fibers contracting skeletal muscle ber shortens as all of sarcomeres shorten in length tension is exerted on portion of skeleton where muscle is attached 0 thick and thin protein laments in sarcomeres interact to cause muscle contraction Sliding Filament Theory 0 sliding lament theory when a muscle contracts thick and thin laments slide past each other and the sarcomere shortens ln sarcomere during contraction 0 width ofA band is constant H zone disappears 0 Z discs in one sarcomere move closer together 0 sarcomere narrows or shortens in length 0 l bands narrow or shorten in length 0 Thick and thin laments don t change length themselves just change position between them changes Neuromuscular lunctions neuromuscular junction point where motor neuron meets a skeletal muscle ber transmits effect of nerve impulse has the following components synaptic knob expanded tip on axon where impulse rst travels o synaptic vesicles small membrane sacs lled with molecules of neurotransmitter acetylcholine Ach 0 motor end plate specialized region of sarcolemma that has folds and indentations to increase membrane surface area covered by synaptic knob synaptic cleft narrow space separating synaptic knob and the motor end plate 0 ACh receptors in motor end plate act like doors that normally are closed Ach is key acetylcholinesterase AChE enzyme in synaptic cleft rapidly breaks down Ach that are released into synaptic cleft needed so ACh doesn t continuously stimulate muscle Muscle 7bne some motor units are always active even at rest 0 muscle tone is resting tension in a skeletal muscle 0 stabilizes the position of bones and joints o 2 types of muscle contraction 0 isometric contraction length of muscle does not change because tension produced by muscle never exceeds resistance muscle is tense 0 isotonic contraction tension produced or is gt than resistance muscle bers shorten movement concentric contractions actively shorten a muscle load is less than max tension eccentric contractions actively lengthen a muscle setting load down Tvnes of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 0 range of action determined by what muscles form it o 3 types of skeletal muscle oxidative type I fast oxidative type Ila and fast glycolytic type llb 0 each muscle contain some of all types Table 104 Fiber Characteristic ATP Use Capacity to Make ATP Concentration of Capillaries Color of F fliers Contraction Velocity Resistance to Fatigue Fiber Distribution Fiber Diameter Number of Mitochondria Amount ofMyoglobin Primary F ber Function Slow Oxidative SO Fibers TYPE ll Slow High aerobic Extensive Dark red Slow Highest Found in greatest abundance in muscles of the trunk especially postural muscles Smallest Many large Endurance eg marathon running maintaining posture Fast Oxidative P0 Fibers TYPE Ila Fast Moderate aerobic Mode rately extensive Lighter red Fast High Found in greatest abundance in muscles of the lower limbs intermediate Many Medium Medium duration moderate movement mg walking biltingl Structural and Functional Characteristics at Different Types oli Siteletall Muscle Fibers Fast Glycolytic PG Fibers Type 11b Fast limited anaerobic Sparse White pale Fast tow Found in greatest abundance in muscles ofthe upper limbs in rgest Few Small Short duration intense movement rag sprinting lifting weights Distribution of Slow Oxidative Fast Oxidative and Fast Glycolytic Fiber 0 within a single motor unit all bers belong to the same type 0 relative number of SO bers compared to F6 bers in each muscle is determined by a person s genes and proportions determine endurance of the person 0 distance runners have high SO bers 0 person is better in performing repeated contractions aerobic conditions with more SO bers 0 sprinters and weightlifters need high F6 for power explosiveness 0 develop SO or F6 depending on your conditioning Skeletal Muscle Fiber Organization Circular Muscles Parallel Muscles fascicles in parallel muscle run parallel to long axis each ber has functional characteristics of entire parallel muscle central body or gaster that shortens when it contracts body increases in diameter have high endurance but non as strong rectus abdominis sixpack biceps brachii masseter moves mandible Convergent Muscles Pennate Muscles 3 types 0 unipennate muscle all muscle bers on same side of tendon extensor digitorum long muscles extends ngers 0 bipennate muscle most common type muscle bers on both sides palmar and dorsal interosseous muscles that attach metacarpals 0 multipennate muscle branches of tendon within the muscle deltoid covering superior shoulderjoint Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Muscle Atrophy o atrophy is a wasting of tissue that results in reduction of muscle size tone and power 0 due to reduced stimulation loss of mass and tone 0 muscle becomes accid bers decrease in size and weaker o initially reversible but dead or dying muscle bers are not replaced 0 extreme atrophy permanent loss of gross muscle function Muscle Hypertrophy o hypertrophy is an increase in muscle ber size does not result in increase in muscle ber number hyperpasia results in increase in number of myo brils per ber in fast bers 0 exercise l more mitochondria larger glycogen reserves increased ability to make ATP Levers and Joint Biomechanics lever is object that rotates around a xed point called the fulcrum 0 levers change speed and distance of movement produced by force direction of force and force strength rotation effort applied to one point on lever exceeds resistance located at other point part of level from fulcrum to point of effort is called the effort arm and part from fulcrum to point of resistance is resistance arm long bone is lever joint is fulcrum effort is generated by muscle Classes of Levers SecondClass Levers resistance in secondclass lever is between fulcrum and applied effort ex lifting handles of wheelbarrow small force can balance larger weight because force is farther from fulcrum that resistance rare in the body plantar exion ThirdClass Levers thirdclass lever effort applied between resistance and fulcrum ex picking up small object with forceps most common in the body elbow fulcrum is joint between humerus and ulna effort applied by biceps resistance by hand weight Actions of Skeletal Muscles synergist muscle that assists the agonist in performing action 0 usually contributes to tension exerted close to point of origin most useful at start of movement when stretched agonist can t produce as much power 0 assist also by preventing movement in a joint stability in this case are called xators Naming the Skeletal Muscles named according to 0 Muscle action 0 exor extensor pronator Speci c body regions 0 Muscle attachments 0 rst part of name indicates origin second insertion o Orientation of muscle bers 0 rectus straight oblique bers at angle 0 Muscle size and shape 0 brevis is short muscle longus is long teres is long and round large is magnus or major or maxmus small is minor or minmus Characteristics of Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle 0 they are autorhythmic individual cells can generate a muscle impulse without nervous stimulation l heartbeat 0 autonomic nervous system controls rate of rhythmic contraction of cardiac muscle 0 dependent on calcium ions to stimulate contraction calcium from interstitial uid bathing cells because their SR and terminal cisternae are less developed and store fewer calcium ions than skeletal muscle Smooth Muscle 0 single central nucleus 0 have both thick and thin laments but they are not aligned so there is no striations or sarcomeres present 0 no Z discs that anchor the sarcomere on either end in skeletal muscle instead thin laments attach to dense bodiessma concentrations of protein scattered throughout sarcoplasm and on inner face of sarcolemma by elements of cytoskeleton sparse SR no Ttubules or troponin 0 calcium for activation from interstitial uid around cell comparing skeletal and smooth muscle both involve calciumbinding protein called calmodulin when smooth muscle cells inactive no calcium enters from interstitial uid to bind to calmodulin when they are stimulated from calcium in interstitial l unique protein myosin lightchain that can be phosphorylated which is needed to contract smooth muscle Calmodulin regulates addition of phosphate to myosin lightchain smooth muscle contraction is slow resistant to fatigue don t need much ATP like skeletal and usually sustained for extended periods of time smooth is involuntary cardiac controlled by autonomic nervous system Aging of the Muscular System progressive loss of skeletal muscle from inactivity lost muscle mass is replaced by adipose or brous connective tissue number of myo brils and myo laments decrease cutback in oxygen storage capacity because of less myoglobin less glycogen reserves less ability to produce ATP elasticity of skeletal muscle decreases as muscle mass is often replaced by dense regular brous connective tissue a process called brosis l decrease elasticity and exibility also from increase in collagen bers Development of the Muscular System skeletal muscle tissue formation during 4 week from blocks of paraxial mesoderm that form structures called somites during development many groups of myoblasts fuse to form single skeletal muscle bers gh11 Axial Muscles axial muscles have both their origins and insertions on parts of the axial skeleton support and move head and spinal column 0 function in nonverbal communication by affecting facial features 0 move the lower jaw during chewing assist in food processing swallowing aid breathing support and protect abdominal and pelvic organs 0 NOT responsible for stabilizing or moving pectoral or pelvic girdles or their attached limbs only appendicular muscles do this 5 Groups of axial muscles muscles of head and neck muscles of vertebral column muscles of respiration muscles of abdominal wall muscles of pelvic oor innervation nerves that supplies a muscle and stimulates it to contract Muscles of Head and Neck almost all originate on either the skull or the hyoid bone Muscles of Facial Expression origin in the super cial fascia or on the skull bones insert into super cial fascia of the skin so contraction contorts skin all but one are innervated by the seventh cranial nerve CN VII the facial nerve epicranius is composed of the occipitofrontalis muscle and broad epicranial aponeurosis quotgaea aponeurotica frontal belly of occipitofrontalis raises eyebrows wrinkles skin of forehead occipital belly of occipitofrontalis covers posterior side of head retracts scalp slightly deep to frontal belly corrugator supercilii draws eyebrows together creates vertical wrinkle lines above nose orbicularis oculi circular muscle bers surrounding orbit closes eyelids wink blink squinting levator palpebrae superioris elevates upper eyelid when open eyes nasalis elevates corners of the nostrils quot are nostrilsquot procerus wrinkle nose in distaste over bridge of nose orbicularis oris encircle mouth depressor labii inferioris pulls lower lip inferiorly depressor anguli oris frown muscle pulls corners of mouth inferiorly levator labii superioris pulls upper lip superiorly snarling zygomaticus major and zygomaticus minor work with levator anguli oris muscle used when smiling risorius pulls corned of lips laterally closed mouth smile mentalis protrudes lower lip pouting platysma tenses skin of neck pulls lower lip inferiorly buccinator compresses cheek against the teeth when we chew Extrinsic Eye Muscle extrinsic eye muscles extraocuar muscles move the eyes originate with orbit and insert onto the white outer surface of the eye called the sclera 6 total rectus muscles medial lateral inferior and superior and oblique muscles inferior and superior rectus muscles 0 origin from a common tendinous ring in the orbit 0 muscles insert on the anterior part of the sclera of the eye 0 named according to which side of the eye they are located at medial lateral inferior and superior 0 medial rectus pulls eye medially adducts eye innervated by CM oculomotor nerve 0 lateral rectus pulls eye laterally abducts eye innervated by CN Vl abducens 0 inferior rectus pulls eye inferiorly looking down and medially at nose innervated by CN Ill 0 superior rectus pulls eye superiorly looking up and medially toward nose innervated by CN Ill 0 inferior and superior do not pull directly parallel to long axis of eye so both muscles also move slightly in medial direction oblique eye muscles 0 originate from within the orbit and insert on the posterolatera part of sclera of eye inferior oblique elevates eye and turns eye laterally innervated by CN lll superior oblique depresses eye and turns eye laterally passes through pulleylike loop called the trochlea in the anteromedial orbit innervated by CN IV trochlear Muscles of Mastication mastication refers to the process of chewing muscles move the mandible at the temporomandibular joint 4 paired muscles temporalis masseter and lateral and medial pterygoids innervated by mandibular division of CN V trigeminal nerve temporalis broad fanshaped muscle that extends from the temporal lines of the skull and inserts on the coronoid process of the mandible 0 elevates and retracts the mandible 0 can feel it when you put ngers on temple and open mouth masseter elevates and protracts the mandible 0 most powerful and important of the masticatory muscles 0 short thick super cial to temporalis 0 feel at angle of mandible when open and closing mouth lateral and medial pterygoid arise from lateral pterygoid plates of sphenoid bone inserts on mandible 0 protract mandible and move it side to side during chewing 0 movements maximize ef ciency of teeth while chewing or grinding foods or carious consistencies 0 medial pterygoid also elevates the mandible Muscles That Move the Tongue intrinsic muscles curl squeeze and fold the tongue during chewing and speaking extrinsic muscles origin on other head and neck structures and insert on the tongue 0 end in suf x g055u5 meaning tongue 0 function for precise complex and delicate tongue movements required for proper speech 0 manipulate food within mouth to swallow 0 mostly innervated by CN Xll the hypoglossal nerve left and right genioglossus origin on mandible and protract the tongue stick out tongue left and right styloglossus originate on styloid processes of temporal bones elevate and retract the tongue left and right hyoglossus originate at hyoid bone and insert on sides of tongue depress and retract the tongue left and right palatoglossus originate on soft palate elevate posterior portion of tongue Muscles of the Pharnyx pharnyx throat funnelshaped tube that lies posterior to and extends inferiorly from both the oral and nasal cavities pharyngeal muscles aid in swallowing innervated by CN X vagus nerve 0 pharyngeal constrictors superior middle and inferior primary pharyngeal muscles contract sequentially to initiate swallowing and force the bolus inferiorly others help elevate or tense palate to swallow Muscles of the Anterior Neck suprahyoid muscles superior to hyoid bone oor of mouth elevate hyoid bone during speaking and swallowing infrahyoid muscles inferior to hyoid bone contract to in uence position of hyoid bone and larynx as swallowing ends depress the thyroid cartilage of the larynx digastric has 2 bellies anterior and posterior elevates hyoid bone and depresses the mandible geniohyoid originates from mental spines of mandible and inserts on hyoid bone elevates hyoid bone mylohyoid broad at provides a muscular oor to mouth elevates hyoid bone and raises oor of mouth muscle bers in Vshape sylohyoid originates from styloid process of skull inserts on the hyoid elevates hyoid bone causing oor of oral cavity to elongate during swallowing omohyoid two thin muscle bellies anchored by tissue sling lateral to sternohyoid extends from superior border of scapula inserts on hyoid depresses hyoid bone sternohyoid origin is sternum inserts at hyoid depresses hyoid bone sternothyroid is deep to sternohyoid sternum thyroid cartilage of larynx depresses thyroid cartilage to return it to original position after swallowing thyrohyoid thyroid cartilage of larynx l hyoid depresses hyoid bone and elevates thyroid cartilage to close off larynx during swallowing omohyoid sternohyoid thyrohyoid anchor hyoid so digastric can depress mandible left and right splenius capitis splenius cervicis semispinalis capitis and longissimus capitis muscles bilaterally contract extend the neck unilateral contraction moves head to same side suboccipital muscles obliquus capitus superior obliquus capitus inferior rectus capitis posterior majorminor obliquus muscles turn head to same side rectus muscles extend head and neck Congenital Muscular Torticollis CMT known as wryneck condition where newborn presents shortened and tightened sternocleidomastoid muscle which may persist into childhood result of trauma from dif cult birth or prenatal position of fetus causes hematoma and brosing of muscle tissue or being kept as infant in infant seat for long time victim tilts head toward affected side favors side when sleeping l attened head pagiocephay treat with stretching botox wstretching release surgery SYD Muscles of the Vertebral Column super complex multiple origins and insertions exhibit extensive overlap covered by the most super cial back muscles that move limb muscles that move vertebral column are innervated by spinal nerves neck is cervical portion of vertebral column erector spinae function to maintain posture and to help an individual stand erect when left and right contract together they extend the vertebral column if only one side contracts column exes laterally toward same side 0 organized into 3 groups multipart overlapping muscles 0 share common tendinous insertion from posterior part of iliac crest posterior sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae 0 named based on body region location 0 iliocostalis group most laterally placed composed of cervical thoracic and lumbar inserts at angles of ribs and transverse processes of cervical vertebrae 0 longissimus group medial to iliocostalis group inserts on mastoid process of temporal bone and transverse processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae composed of capitis cervical and thoracic parts 0 spinalis group most medially placed of erector spinae muscles insert on spinous processes of vertebrae composed of cervical and thoracic parts cervical part originates at C7 s spinous process and thoracic vertebrae innervated by the cervical and thoracic spinal nerves Deep to erector spinae muscle group called the transversospinalis muscles connect to stabilize the vertebrae included minor deep back muscles called interspinales and intertransversarii that assist the transversospinalis muscles with moving vertebral column quadratus lumborum muscles primarily in lumbar region when left and right bilaterally contract extends vertebral column unilateral contraction laterally exes column I Inte rt ra r1 sue rs ari u s Fiststsxres thoracis Transverse process of vertebra Irate rsmlna es Spirnous process DIE us tebra Figure 1 1 II 2 Selected Transvers spinalllis Muscles and Mi r Deep Back Min sales iuiI I ff i I v Aquot 39i I 1 I 39i I Muscles of Abdominal Wall super cial external oblique muscle bers directed inferomedially muscular along lateral abdominal wall 0 forms an aponeurosis as it projects anteriorly 0 inferiorly aponeurosis of external oblique forms strong cordlike inguinal ligament that extends anterior superior iliac spine l pubic tubercle 0 inserts on linea alba by a broad aponeurosis and some to the iliac crest immediately deep to quot is internal oblique muscle bers superomedially right angle to external 0 forms aponeurosis as it projects anteriorly 0 unilaterally external and opposite side s internal oblique rotate vertebral column 0 inserts on linea alba pubic crest inferior rib surfaces of last four ribs and costal cartilages of ribs 810 deepest muscle is transverse abdominis bers transverse across abdomen 0 originates from iliac crest cartilages of inferior 6 ribs the lumbar fascia and inguinal ligament rectus abdominis long straplike muscle that extends vertically entire length of anteromedial abdominal wall between sternum and pubic symphysis 0 divided into 4 sections by 3 tendinous intersections forms the sixpack 0 enclosed in a brous sleeves called the rectus sheath formed from the aponeuroses of the external oblique internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles 0 linea alba brous vertical strip that connects right and left rectus sheaths muscles of abdominal wall are innervated by primarily thoracic spinal nerves Muscles of Pelvic Floor oor of pelvic cavity is formed by 3 layers of muscles and associated fasciae collectively pelvic diaphragm 0 extends from ischium and pubis of ossa coxae across pelvic outlet to sacrum and coccyx 0 support pelvic viscera most superior layer is the coccygeus amp levator ani coccygeus pulls coccyx anteriorly after its posterior de ection during defecation or childbirth external anal sphincter located in anal triangle assists in defecation levator ani larges and most important collection of muscles in pelvic oor supports pelvic viscera and functions as a sphincter at anorectal junction urethra and vagina 0 formed by the iliococcygeus pubococcygeus and the puborectalis 0 puborectalis is sling around anorectal junction contraction increases bend or angle of anorectal junction relaxing is necessary for defecation passage 0 perineum diamondshaped region between lower appendages landmarks pubic symphysis anteriorly coccyx posteriorly ischial tuberosities laterally draw transverse line between tuberosities j partitions perineum into anterior urogenital triangle containing external genitalia and urethra and posterior anal triangle containing the anus


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