Russia Notes PSY 124 - 03
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PSY 124 - 03
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne Franklin on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 124 - 03 at University of Indianapolis taught by Jordan Sparks Waldron in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Fndtns/Psyc Science I:Methods in Psychlogy at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Russia Russian Roots Rus—Slav settlements in the area of Ukraine Kievan Slavs and Novgorod Slavs combined to form a large state The Mongol Invasion Mongol peoples Turkic-speaking Tatars Around Slavic/Russian core in the Volga River Basin and Crimean Peninsula Grand Duchy of Muscovy 14 Century Extended Moscow’s trade links from Baltic to Black Sea Religious ties with Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople th 16 Century Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) Transformed into major military power and imperial state Building the Russian Empire Czarist Feudal Russia Peter the Great (1682-1725) Consolidated Russia’s gains Endeavored to make a modern European-style state Founder of modern Russia Built St. Petersburg Russia’s border pushed to Black Sea Trans-Siberian Railroad (1892) connects vast empire Penetrated corridor between Black and Caspian Seas Compare gains in East to gains in West 20 century sees halt of expansion Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) Defeated by Japan Forced out of Manchuria “Great Game”- Tensions between imperial Russia and imperial Britain (India) • Czarist Russia is feudal and backwards compared to western Europe • WWI: hunger and mass casualties spark protests and rebellion Founding of USSR • Revolution of 1917 • Vladimir Lenin—communist leader and chief architect • After Lenin’s death in 1924, Stalin consolidates power and holds it until his death in 1953 The Soviet Union Political Framework Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Divided into 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs) Russian Republic—largest SSR Broadly corresponded to a major nationality’s territory Within the SSRs, smaller minorities were designated Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSRs) Phantom Federation • Imperialism is inconsistent with Communist ideology • Moscow maintained absolute control over the SSRs • Russification • Moved minority peoples eastward and replaced with Russians • Substantial ethnic Russian minorities in all non-Russian republics • Soviet Economic Framework • Two Objectives: Accelerate industrialization and collectivize agriculture • Command Economy—assigned the production of particular manufactures to particular places Ethnic Diversity Annexed and incorporated many nationalities and cultures over hundreds of years of empire More than 100 nationalities, often without distinct boundaries Russians form the majority Non-Russian Caucasus Mountains Georgians Armenians Azeris Central Asia Turkic peoples Russia’s Changing Political Policy A Shrinking Population • Population implosion ‒ Population declines as death rate exceeds birth or immigration rates • Male life expectancy dropped ‒ 71 years in 1991 to 62 years in 2010 ‒ Males more likely to be afflicted by alcoholism, related diseases, AIDS, heavy smoking, suicide, accidents, murder • Out-migration Volatile Economy • Transition from communism involves selling off state-owned operations (mines, factories, farms, etc.) • Many end up in hands of a small, wealthy, powerful elite (Oligarchy) • Much of Russia’s economic rise based exclusively on exports of oil and gas • Unitary state system ‒ System with a centralized government and administration • Federal system ‒ The national government usually is responsible for matters such as defense, foreign policy, and foreign trade ‒ Allows entities to have their own laws, policies, and customs in certain areas Consequences: Viktor Yushchenko before and after being poisoned during the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election. Western claims: He was poisoned by Russian-backed separatists for opposing Viktor Yanukovych. Russian claims: He suffered an unknown disease. Blood samples were tainted by US intelligence services or someone else to strengthen Yushchenko’s bid for the presidency The Near Abroad Russia seeks to influence former Soviet republics to achieve its foreign policy objectives in various areas: • Security – Provides buffer zone against potential threats • Nationalism – Russian populations abroad • Infrastructural connections to Russia • Trade routes, oil and gas pipelines • Prestige – Is Russia still a superpower? Security Issues: Rebellious minorities are present in both Russia and its Near Abroad Nationalism Issues: Russia seeks to protect ethnic Russian interests in Near Abroad countries Energy Infrastructure Issues: In Soviet times, significant resources were put towards connecting Russia and its neighbors. Russia wants to maintain those ties Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) • Collective security – an attack on one is an attack on all • Holds joint military exercises • Rapid response force for security, counter-terrorism, fight crime and drug- trafficking, natural disaster response • Mutual agreement on hosting foreign military bases Russia seeks to show it can continue to project influence abroad. If it can’t do it in the former Soviet republics, it can’t do it anywhere
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