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Criminology 101 Final Test Study Guide

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by: Lexie Renouard

Criminology 101 Final Test Study Guide CRIM 101 004

Marketplace > Gonzaga University > Criminology and Criminal Justice > CRIM 101 004 > Criminology 101 Final Test Study Guide
Lexie Renouard
Gonzaga University
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

This covers all that the final test will go over.
Crime and Justice Systems
Stacie Merken
Class Notes
criminology, Study Guide
25 ?




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"Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class"

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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexie Renouard on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRIM 101 004 at Gonzaga University taught by Stacie Merken in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Crime and Justice Systems in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Gonzaga University.

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Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Criminal Justice Study Guide Do a general review of big ideas from the first semester. Focus more on concepts and less on detail. Chapter 5: Jurisdiction- geographic limits such as municipality, county, or state, in which officers of an agency are empowered to perform their duties. 3 Divisions of Law Enforcement 1. Federal Law Enforcement a. Can only enforce federal laws b. Are under the control of the executive branch (OBAMA) c. Federal Agencies: i. Military Police- law enforcement on military bases (each division has their own way of dealing with crime) ii. Tribal Police- jurisdiction on reservations where local and state police have no jurisdiction (federal officials do investigate federal crimes) iii. US Marshals Service- security in federal courts, moving prisoners, and witness protection iv. US Postal Inspection Service- security of US mail and US mail carriers and investigate mail fraud v. Secret Service- protects the president, VP, their families, candidates, and visiting foreign officials vi. FBI- protect against terrorist attacks, foreign intelligence, espionage, and cyber attacks vii. NCIC (National Crime Information Center)- database of wanted felons, parolees, criminal history, and stolen items viii. ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives)- responsible for regulating alcohol, tobacco, firearms, explosives, and arson ix. DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency)- enforces controlled substances and supports non-enforcement programs to prevent illegal drugs from being available 2. State Police a. Jurisdiction limited to state boundaries b. State Enforcement Agencies: i. Highway Patrol- traffic enforcement and safety ii. Criminal Investigation- duh 3. County Law Enforcement: a. Sheriff’s Office- county wide jurisdiction, chief enforcement officer, elected by the people i. Powers: operates the county jail, serves as an officer of the court, enforces laws b. Deputy Sheriff- assists the sheriff c. Officers of the Court- security of the court, serve people their papers, and transport incarcerated defendants C Local Law Enforcement Responsibilities: hi ef o Enforce traffic laws Pf o Investigate crimes Deputy Chief o Patrolling e o First responders of accidents Major o Investigate accidents Captain Police Hiring Process: Lieutenant Sergeant Corporal Officer Challenges: o Shift Work- constant change of sleep schedule takes a physical toll o Stress and Danger- risks in the job create stress Private Security/ Special Police: o Limited jurisdiction (ex: airport police, transit police, campus Meet police) Qualificatio Written Physical Oral Exam Polygraph ns o Propriety Services- Security owned or managed by a company Contract Services- Security who work for a 3 party company to provide specific services at the direction of the client Character Psychologic Investigatio Policing: Wilsonl Drug al Recruit n Screening Screening Evaluation Academy Field Officer Probationar Civil Service Training y Status Status Watchman- focuses on maintaining order (blue collar) Legalistic- enforce the law with professionalism (reform minded cities) Service- protecting suburban middle class against criminals Community Policing: Know examples of the following  Focus on crime prevention rather than apprehension  Promotes quality of life rather than law enforcement  Uses alternatives to arrest and forces a solution to the problem Broken Window Theory: By having a broken window on a car in a neighborhood it is more likely to get vandalized more quickly than a nice, undamaged car and vice versa. Zero Tolerance Strategy: Strict enforcement of the laws, even for minor offences, designed to send a message Problem Oriented Policing:  Attacking underlying the problems that cause problems  Reliance on the expertise and creativity of line officers  Close involvement with a community (positive relationships) S. A. R. A. Problem Solving: Scan- gather data to define the problem Analyze- to find the cause of the problem Respond- work with community to solve the problem Assess- follow up on effectiveness of solution Chapter 6: Police Conduct:  Governed by a Code of Ethics  Have clearly outlined procedures and policies outlined in a standard operating procedures (SOP) manual  Citizen Complaint Board- a citizen review board that hears alleged complaints of police misconduct  Internal Affairs Unit or Office of Internal Affairs- conducts investigations of criminal, abusive, or unprofessional behavior by law enforcement within the department  Direct Oversight- laws and judicial decisions that prohibit specific law enforcement behavior  Indirect Oversight- a criminal trial held if the standards of the court are not met by the agencies or officers  Procedural Law- laws that dictate how things should be done at each stage of the criminal justice process Evidence:  Rules of Evidence- requirements for introducing evidence and testimony into court th  Exclusionary Rule- prohibits the use of evidence that violates the 4 (privacy) or 5 (self-incrimination) amendment laws.  Fruit of the Poisonous Tree- evidence obtained illegally cannot be tried in court along with any evidence found because of the illegal act Problems with the Police Force:  Grass Eaters- police who engage in minor illegitimate activities  Meat Eaters- officers who engage in serious criminal conduct  Racial profiling and harder treatment on minorities  Entrapment- illegal arrest of someone based on criminal behavior the officer provided both the means and the motive to commit o Stings- officers pose as buyers of illegal substances (21 Jump Street) o Reverse Sting- officers pose as suppliers of illegal substances Chapter 7: Dual court system- the political division of jurisdiction into two separate systems of courts: federal and state; this makes it so that federal courts have limited jurisdiction over state courts; defined by Article 3, Section 2 of the constitution. Jurisprudence- a philosophy or body of written law used to settle disputes and regulate behavior th 11 Amendment- a person from one state cannot sue the gUS Supremeof another state in federal court Court 10 thAmendment- any power not delegaUS Court offederal government falls State Court of to the states Appeals Last Resort Civil Law: US District Intermediate Courts Courts of  Law concerned with definition, regulation and Appeals enforcement of rights US Magistrate Trial Courts of Courts General Jurisdiction Courts of Limited  Noncriminal cases  Tort- claims of personal injury that are not criminal  Private parties bring them to court  Punishments include monetary damages or enforcement of a contract  Needs a majority vote to pass Criminal Law:  Violation of a law  Must have a unanimous vote  The government brings people to court  Punishments include fines, imprisonment, restrictions or death Circuits- geographic divisions of the federal court system Judicial Review- the power of the courts to declare congressional and presidential acts unconstitutional; established by Marbury v. Madison Magistrate Courts- lower federal courts who try misdemeanors, set bail, and assist district courts with legal matters District Courts- federal trial courts of original jurisdiction Original jurisdiction- the first court to hear and render a verdict regarding charges against the defendant. Certiorari Power- the authority to select cases for review; this power lies with the prosecuting attorney Writ of Certiorari- an order to a lower court to forward a case record to the Supreme Court Per Curiam Option- a case disposed of by the Supreme Court without a full written opinion Affirm the Case- a finding by the Supreme Court that there was no constitutional or judicial error and the ruling of the lower case stands Reversing the Case- when the Supreme Court finds a judicial or constitutional error and nullifies the lower court’s decision Remand- after the Supreme Court’s reversal of a lower court’s decision, the case then returns to the court of original jurisdiction to correct the error Stare Decisis- the legal principle of determining points in litigation according to the precedent. This means that if one case makes a decision that changes a certain policy, then all other cases must make their decisions with that ruling in mind. Landmark Case- when a Supreme Court makes a decision that marks a significant change to interpretation of the constitution Trial Do Novo- a new trial granted by an appellate court Court of Last Resort- a state court of final appeals that reviews lower court decisions and can send a case to the Supreme Court Chapter 8: Double Jeopardy- trying a person twice for the same crime Pretrial Proceedings:  Prosecutorial Discretion- the power of the prosecuting attorney to decide whether or not to charge a defendant and what to charge them with  Arraignment- the trial where the defendant is formally charged with a crime and asked to enter a plea of guilty or not guilty  Competent to Stand Trial- the ability of the defendant to understand the charges brought against them and to assist counsel with their defense; if a person is not deemed competent then the trial will be delayed until they are competent (ex. a medical condition affecting intellectual capacity)  Preliminary Hearing- a judge determines if there is enough evidence to go to trial  Grand Jury- an alternative to a preliminary hearing; a confidential way to determine if there is enough evidence to charge a defendant with a crime; can also be a discrete way to obtain arrest warrants Bail:  Money given to the court with the promise to appear in court; once they appear they get the money back  Bail can be denied if the defendant is considered a flight risk  Alternatives to Cash Bond: o Release on Recognizance (ROR)- release based only on the promise to appear in court o Unsecured Bond- release granted if the defendant signs a promissory note to pay the court a predetermined amount if they do not show up (basically an IOU) o Signature Bond- releases defendant if they sign something promising to appear in court; usually used for traffic violations/tickets o Conditional Release- a bail alternative in which the defendant is released from custody if they agree to court-ordered terms (ex. attending a drug or alcohol treatment program, or anger management)  Plea Bargaining- negotiation between the prosecution and the defendant to plead guilty in exchange for a reduction or dismissal of charges; often used to clear cases.  Trial Penalty- the fact that many people who decide to go to trial get placed with harsher punishments than those who accept a plea  Court Docket- calendar  Statute of Limitations- length of time between the discovery of a crime and the arrest of the defendant, if that time is exceeded then the defendant cannot be prosecuted Review your notes for the following: Schlauser reading- most people who are incarcerated are in nonviolent crimes, products that were made in prisons, look for his issues with private prisons, big ideas, less details. 12 Angry Men- how a jury works PBS: Prisons for Profit- differences between a private and a state run prison Frontline: The Real CSI- Fingerprints are not an exact science Murder on a Sunday Morning- Brenton Butler case The Real 21 Jump Street (short video) Know transition from slavery to prisons to prison work No specific details Know theories not names Know the difference between a felony and a misdemeanor Know definition and application (know examples for stuff)


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