Class Note for GEOG 695C at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
A MultiTiered TestingandFeedback Approach That Links Technology amp Pedagogy Katherine K Hirschboeck nauultl I arizonaedu Laboratory of TreeRing Research University of Arizona OUTLINE Pedao ical Basis Adaptation to NATS 101 Adding Learning Technology amp Other Tools A MultiTiered Testing amp Feedback Approach Summary amp Suggestions Pedaoica Basis Larry Michaelsen L Dee Fink Robert H Black 1 996 What eller faculty developer needs to know about learning groups 1 Learning Groups Team Learnin Instructional Activit Sequence 2 Pivotal role of feedback in develo in students hiher level cognitive skills Michaelsen et al 1 996 describe a quotReadiness Assurance Process consisting of 1 assigned readings for individual study 2 an individual test 3 a group test taken within a collaborative learning group 4 immediate feedback on the group test with an opportunity for group appeals 5 oral instructor feedback Structure units of instruction based on desired Iearnin outcomes Team Learning Instructional Activity Sequence From Michaelsen et al 1996 Readiness Assurance Process Readiness Assurance Application of Course Concepts Diagnosis Feedback Preparurinn preclass I kwtil I 1 2 3 4 5 5 1 Individual 5 Study Instructor Feedback 6 ApplicationOriented Activities 4Written Group Appeals 3 Group Test Include activities that apply hiherIevel conitive skills to course concepts 2 Individual Test Readiness Assurance Process Used to introduce each major instructional unit and to ensure that students are intellectually prepared for assignments needing higher level cognitive skills One result of the process is that quotstudents encounter new data that test their understanding of key concepts at least five different times and in five very different waysquot From Michaelsen et al 1996 Reassessment of Procedure in NATS 101 Course Students complained that concepts too dif cult to be tested on without prior lecture explanations Readiness Tests were made simpler to compensate hence little testing on higher level concepts took place 0 Lots of class time taken up by Readiness Assurance testing sessions when material was broken down into more digestible units Appeals process did not lead to new learning with Tier One students INTERIM CONCLUSIONS typicalya weak link when ALWAYSM saldents don t do Me readings Whack needed I esp in large Preparation pmclass 1 Readiness Assurance I classes Diagnosis Feedback Individual Study Written appeals not mum a as very In class individualgmup 39 7 7 39 m use llln large lower testing pmcess walks well division class quot Individual Test Ada tations I Im rovements More feedback during preparation phase with low stakes grading to help stuents understand and gain con dence with material Less class time taken up by individual phase of Readiness Assessmentquot Ada tations I Im rovements Continue with inclass Individual amp Group Test process but with hi her stakes testin Ensure individual accountability for learning high stakes exams More FEEDBACK needed overall Ad mg Legwrm m T hm gy T U INTRODUCTION TO GLOBAL CHANGE FALL 2006 NATS 101 LEC 40 T am 1230 145 pm Integrated Lmning Canhr 14o Instructor Dr Kati Hirschbneck Have used m both 1 39 L WebCT V T553 amp 7 7 QUICK LINKS GLOBAL CLASS CHANGE SUPPORT LINKS LINKS CLASS FOLLOW UP hmzmmmamwmmmm39u 1 egg lanr rF m 9 Read nnlu rm UE 41 Gmdes runs um WEIVCOW TO NATS IUI KI INTRODUCTION TO Gl OBAL CHANGEquot HunkhmammsulmnuunlmImmmxuu WESDNAnvzznnlcnm L m mummm mummmvsmmum lllnm M Kszi mm Ilmunndum mum mu I dun nlemvm Munrom mullmm 0 m mama Drop Incx Elizcussicn Fusts ssignments Checklist M Self Tests Study Guides Adaptation to NATS 1 O1 Tw0 eve3980f HighStakes Testing at appropriate Ram39s150 3 133 InClass Application times during the pre cass ofigoyrse Concepts semester I Students read textbook amp take wonli ne 02 quotTest wit 2 immediate 98W ens areacorrect amp after discussion incorrect Immediate ni ed d MultiTiered Testing Approach Midterm amp Final quot Individual Exams 39 lnclass Individual amp Group Tests HIGH STAKES TESTING Online Readiness Quizzes 5152355 Ungraded TEST39NG SelfTests MultiTiered Testing Approach START OUT WITH UNGRADED SELFTEST amp SHORT ONLINE QUIZ To give you feedback in your reading comprehension you ll start with low stakes online quizzes 0 5pts each u u In D2L On II he STAKES Ungraded 15311 NG Example of SelfTest question Question 3 The quotgreenhouse effectquot is F 1 a natural physical process that operates in all planetary atmospheres r 2 a process that began on Earth with the Industrial Reyolution and the rapid burning of fossil Fuels by human beings f 3 the process that has caused the destruction of ozone leaying a hole in the ozone layer oyer Ritchiet3 No don39t get the greenhouse eect and 3 1 a natural physical process ozone depletion mixed up They are two yery different processes They are linked in certain ways eg lCFCs are linked to ozone destruction and CFCs are also greenhouse gases but as you39ll learn during the semester these two processes have yery distinct causes and modes of operation Bingo Taken right from Example of Nmserhsmem Onl Ina SmTin Aprnmm n 29 mm Alluwed 15 muses quot Answmd lime expired I Unanswered R Numherquues nnsH a i i 2 ea ress 5 7 s 9 10 Qquot 2 I I I I I queSt39on I n Question 1 1 point Greenhouse gases are gases that warm a planet s surface by now Si quot9 r 1 radAanng meared radAanon out to spaee 02L r 2 trapping heat coming dArecdy eom me Sun and bouncmg xt down to me Earth s surface r 3 mhbxnng heat loss due to upward ar muons hke me glass walls ofa nh Quuz bunlds W on f 4 absorbmg m ared radAanon from the Earth s surface and rerad ahng some 0fo material but backtoward the surface with some testing of SM a higher level L Hum gt0uiz gtScuns Clouds play an lmponant role ln the planetary energy balanee but Lhelr elfeels on global Wanmug are dl icult to rnodel ln General Crreulauon Models GCMs beeause l Thelr typlcal areal extent ls rnuen larger than me resoluuon ofa GCM 1000 gt 2 110de elouds and lowralntude elouds ean nave opposlte feedback eereels 3 Clouds have a lot ofwater vapor ln hem and Water vapor ls a greenhouse gas only some othe urne 4 Clouds lnterfere wth are GCM s ablllty to reaen an equlllbnum surface Wanmug Scare 1 1 Immediate feedback poss39ble as soon as student submits the quiz 3 1 point Whlch othe followlng ls NOT one ofthe predlcuons comlng 39om are computer rnodel projections offuture C02 levels or me predlcuons ofthelr consequences 1 An average equlllbnum surface Wal39rmng ofbetween l 5 and 4 5 degrees C wlll oeeur wth a doubllng of aunosplnene C02 eoneenuauon 2 The Wal39rmng Caused by lncreased C02 wlll be evenly ddsmbuted ln bolln spaee and lame 3 Substantial sea level nse wlll oeeur and submerge lowrlylng coastal areas 4 Ecosystems wlllbe alfeeled by changes ln specles drsonbuuons 00 gt 5 All othe above are expectedto oeeur Scare 0 1 If students miss an RQ cutoff they may submit an online ABSOLUTION FORM to have the cutoff extended may use only once during the semester NATS l erC Intrnllllctinn tn Glnlml Change Fall 3906 READINESS QUIZ ABSOLUI39ION FORM you my sum m for a quotwas musM 1m maxms gullmm a mum 5ng 1 in M gm 1 m a quotchiquot1 mum om ovnsighlox WWW moumigaimms m momm mu y suhmil dis mmhs whether wur nquzsl has been uczptzd mm mm up in iims m cumplztz dis RQ by dis nzw cum dztz wuw l Inlhe gram 2 secund emusinn 511 am y 5 mil nhul dun dnn39l mei ymii mus Emer ymii Gl nllll Number w v Emsi dis late a g 977705 Emer dis am a g 0 20pm Cnmact me via DZL Ma bnx v yousvllcud quotmammalzvvmnymmnaaamim Select dis Readiness Quiz ynll missed u were taking 1m ynll liml tPEllllitill ll nbl ln RO A v1 Whinth dis pmhlzmwas in as much lth as y can is stat dis nasim wuwen ml aids in mi m z iuud nasim my granting w an emusinn in dis summims J Clickhelnw m suhmil this lm in Hwiii use this in lrnlz nn m muhlzslmul dis siluz nn ifil inimlved z mimics pmhlzm myquot lmard dis in lrnlz nn in dis HA n21 sh i l is z systzmrwidz mum necessary siis will quotspam in y ahqu dis siluz nnviz email Submu Reset MultiTiered Testing Approach and then move on to higher stakes 25 pt tests on the course material taken in class HIGH lnclass Individual STAKES Gm up Tests TESTING I n class Online Readiness Quizzes 39 W Ungraded SelfTests lnclass testing procedure These are Short 1039que3ti0quot After individual test forms quizzes that you ll take after we are completed and cover a set of topics in class counted yo ge into Each question is worth 2 pts 20 Your 39eaming 97 P and pts for the entire Individual Test take 9 M as a 7 rou You ll take it as an individual first You ll nd out your Group Test score right after you take it HOW With a new IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK tool for use during inclass tests amp exams IMMESIME FEEDE EK ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE IF AT Pi amc TSSt Eu j 39r Tmal SCRATCH GFF EDVEHING Tn EKFUEE ANSWER A El 1 D Score 139 v Ir 7 T W S 39 7 3 7 Iquot 3 7 I 5 E w H FIE r Squot ti H w i m E Q Egstein mmw my a Hm El Nev1519191 a comm o Sendloah end What 5 ch IF AW Research a Preaa Pnrclclpntmg Inselmlanu mmmtm erdbm A 551nan Tuhnlqul About tha Company Watch a Demo among Request 533um Form MEIER THEIF M Read the FAQS Epsta n Educativha Enteypr ses Has deve oped a umque Mult DIAchmu Iaammg and assesgmani gynem ul ad m mm mm mamwmmw mm Created by The FAT 15 Idea y gutted er dassmum assessmem tex book and W mm mm a m A a pluissimnz uammg mammmns nmrmtted m pmvldlnq Newman my and mm was MichaeI Epstein 3 We gamma an m exa nre our wabyta ta lenm mun mum m W m mumw at an mi N PhD Rider UniverSIty 3 5mm mun Hume wna sme mm Pubhsm Reseiwh res Pimcwahny ns m wns Abquhe Camvanv Yeshmvmils Dmerm WAY cummnmmm EapquMQQDBS Epsiem Edumnonal smug AH quotmg Mum Sue hy leysma Eyeahva demons vahvn whomhe FAT my httpIIwwwepsteIneducationcoml Imam Fgamcx AssEssuEm TEchwE IF AT Imam Batman A Esma Truman IF An Namn mm 2 Nam Yes SMDJtEI YMa Subjecl Tom sclu39nru m cnvznmu m man Myquot scum m mm m Expos aws A a c E 5wquot 5 c n Swm m z 39 a i i x i i i s 39 H 39 a i L3939 vi a 39quot 2 39 39 7 i m39397 i F u39 g 7 i 13 quot 7 w 39 7 1s39 sr q IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK AssEssnEm TECHIIYDUE IF An IMMEDWE FEEDBACK 39AssEssIlEm TECHMWE IF A11 NW Tu NW Tu Subjecv Tma A maw 5mm m mm M m Exmzwmj m magnum A c saw n 5m 1 7 E 7 2 v V A 5 u39 39 5 7 7 7 K 7 7 v 7 m 7 7 H 7 7 12 7 7 S 7 7 V 7 7 5 I 7 7 V5 7 7 n MultiTiered Testing Approach Midterm Final Individual Exams with IFAT form 100115 pts 8328 Inclass Individual amp TESTING Group Tests 25 pts In Online Readiness class Quizzes 5 pts LOW STAKES Ungraded TESTING SelfTests 0 pts What about feedback for essay questions Followup posting on Webpage dl QUESTIGN 23 J a Give a scienti cally accurate DEFINIT of the natural greenhouse eEect in your own words WPLES OF GOOD ANSWERS Note how my creative and original wag the 5m concept can be worried Student 1 quotThe greenhouse effect is the absorption of escaping infrared radiation by greenhouse gases such as CO2 and H20 which then emit some of this radiation back to Earth This process warms the planet by preventing some infrared Born escaping to sp acequot Student 2 quotThe greenhouse e ect is the absorption of terrestrial longwave radiation by greenhouse gases which is then radiated out towards the earth quot Note that this is not a perfect answer because it39s not clear what is radiating out towards the earth Here39s a slightlyr better wording quot The greenhouse effect is the absorption of terrestrial longwave radiation by greenhouse gases The GH gases then radiate the IR back towards the earth quot EXAMPLES OF ANSWERS WIT H ONE OR TWO PROBLEMS Student 7 quotTue Greenhouse etfeetheppens whm the earth erntts Infrared Radlauon upwards there some ts absorbed by are atmosphere pnmznly coz aed water vapor and then reaeeted back to the eath longme radtataon Thts ts needed by the earth or dse everythrug would be extremely coldquot Can you tdenuty what s Wrong here7 The letal clawts the use ome word m zcted tnstead ofratlr39eterl The mam m wavelength ranges tnvolvedtn the GE are NOT re ected re the IR is ahrurhed amhhen reamed There is a very small band ofIR wavelengths close to vtstble nght called NearrIR that ean be reaeeted m the rnanuer that vtsthle hghns reaeeted but the mpnrnanly molved tuthe GEE ts NOT reelected lee vtsrble hgntl In thrs answer there ts also a suggestaon that the student may tlnuktlnat IDSaxed radtauou ernttted upward by the Earth ts somethtng abtt dttferentthan the longwave radtauon sent bank to Earth As we use the terrns tn tle elass m 39ared and longwave radrataon are the sarne thtng er the Earth ems ml longwave radrauon and the GH gases absorb and erntt m nougwave radtataon as wall Can also be used on EXAMPLES OF ANS WERE WIT H MAJOR PROBLEMS Student 8 quotThe natural geenhouse e eet ts when some ofthe gases that are bouneed o earth does not leave the oone and males back r earth Tm ls used until gas such as C02 and H20 This answer has at least two major problems Flrst ofall GASES are described as bouncing o lhe eathquot whreh ts wrong er even trthe student were to use the tents retleeung tnsttad orbourtetng the procexs ofre ecuon tn the tonttm orthe energy balance docs not apply to gases What 139 reneaed ts sorne oflhe tneonung shortwave UV and vtstble mdtauon BUT the GHE does not tnvolve shortwave radtataon only rerrestnal longwave Serond for some reason the mrm ozone ls mkoduced er but ln an odd Way ahnosx as ozone IS bemg used as 2 synonym for the troposphere Overall the answer use terms and eonerpts wrong ts poorly phrased and presents turonnataon that doesn t mean anythtng moneys Fed ym usim espmdr cm Using the responder system in class the instructor can help students refine their thinking on tricky concepts and give them pointers on how to interpret and more carefully answer such questions I correct answer am mm Ear fe l we quotwe i V dick uniquot Equotl1lrquotll quot5 HQL39leu l gml 7 V rm quot 7 4 V rg HEMWHH39Z Atmospheric r after amp Y Laws of R d b d Structure and griergy Thermo Motion amp e s p o n e r a s e comPOSi m a an I I dynamics 7 Radiation Game Show format can be used for Exam Review The part of this 0 3 absorption curve that is linked to OZONE operating as a GREENHOUSE GAS X I I I l I l I I I I I I I l l I I I 0 o M 0 MI 1 z a I s a l 10 no so Wmhngth um Part X of the absorption curve Part Y of the absorption curve Both Parts X amp Y working together Neither X or Y OZONE is NOT one of the Greenhouse Gases Summary MultiTiered Testin A roach Immediate 39 quot Feedback Midterm amp Final Individual Exams I HIGH lnclass Individual amp STAKES Group Tests TESTING I Online Readiness Quizzes I Sims W TESTING SelfChecks ASSIGMENTS Assxymm has been bampmba Dr 15 past a Fall Zii Slmmlr T mmc DEEPLY AC39 VlT IS Thzse an gndzd miss and hummrk assigmznts wn must camping w W m camping 3 m READING 8 0mm QUIZ assigmznts CLICK HERE xA up a 5 pts each max 3m can em 1 pts GROUP ASSIGNMENTS INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENTS 1 w gt1 H Gmup mug mum 71 bras by 3729475 mm by Dr H 7 u My anlnginal Putzng 15 pts was 111102111529 6712119115me 172 Sun sae mummy uni 2cm unzde mm 19 mm 02 Organizing an Perindic mu m bras by 341475 G 3 Yuur Car R Glnhal Change w Hummus cwummsm gm MHTM Cmsdz mm mm by Rabnba 39 3917 by mmmmmm umE smmbgMmbumy 71 class on 9725176 was duo TM 0431 05 mm W W m Wng mlass on 111117amp 1112 M b M Ls myng sud an pts In M NW 21 ssgnmmr M Vanmum chMWMMmmmw 5 WW Mu bmg mm by in ampAdam as ea Glnhal Warming Debit Par cipz nn in Class n m mthmyouv 3014p W on m Db 5 WITH ALL THIS GOING ON HOW DO WE ASSIST THE STUDENTS TO KEEP TRACK OF REQUIRED ACTIVITIES READINGS CUTOFFS DEADLINES ETC E i E m m r 39LI39IJ39etgage ElmQ box Discussion Pasta Assignment Self Tests Fills Study week 12 e Tasks fur New 5 e n fhatkllsis eexteeee Reading cheekuses eeee eeeetes ee eee e eeeeee Wen nue New 9 znns I Read nr reereed thsnn ch 9 Dr new Du ew s znns Tms es eh exceHent summery af the avers2mm essue af q aha wannan es es e quad remfarcmentfar ch Chapter 16 s mare eetehee treatment H39H m ems WDDD en MM ween fuvAu egquot heeeeeeeeeses m se eee I Read or rerread ml ch 6 DD Insens on model results he Du ew s znns Tms seeteeh savers the strengths ehe weaknesses af the made s thetteu us ahaut the Drajectmns affuture ehmete end the meets af q aha wannan We eeseee see i Iess Neetes Reading 7 F Iess Nntes reading Dr 5421 Mathew T 5va Due New 9 znns mes mtmmetmh mmes sheeemtmm the vmhnmt DENNY n hn Them essessmem Revan me af the Intergavemmenta Pane eh chmete change wcc suehe seme teme reaqu Waugh the IPCC Tah es te earn the answers te the faHawmq quotWhat es wen estahhshed e e rahust nqus ehe whet es steu uheerteehv PD 117415 ee whet es the abserved ewdence far GHG ehe temperature ehereesesv v 12m ee whet pesseexe empeets eeme accur due ta q aha warmmw v 121 Asek AeTi selnest I Self Test 5T4 nue New 9 znns After readan me cheeeter es es thsnn ch 9 eeee Elnhal wermmq test Vaur understanqu af the matena by warkmq Waugh selnest 5T4 Readiness ueeez New 9 znns cemmete Readlness x7 nusv hefare eeeeeeee eeee munsnnv New 9 after Vau have Prepared Vaurse f by deem the texthaak reaqu hetee shave ehe warkmq Waugh Sew Test sw The D2L Checklist Tool Homewnrk Asslgnments r esseeanNeseeseeee me semehe the memeeee esseehmeets farthe semester new eeeeeeeee far yee te eet qmnq eh e the ML esseeanNes ee eeth etthese esseehmeets mu ee exeeemee m mese eeteee m eeess the week r THINKING esspw eemmss n va elv enheeekeeeg Deeglx Aetw es ere pestee under assxewsms eh DZL Ta eem Vaur m pts eemmete et easttwa af these hefare the end af the semester SUMMARY Midterm amp Final Individual Exams Inclass Individual amp men STAKES Group Tests TESTING Online Readiness Quizzes 39 W Ungraded SelfChecks MultiTiered Testing Approach The various testing tiers roress from lowstakes testing nongraded selftests to highstakes testin maor graded exams Tiered approach allows the student to gain knowledge and confidence with the material at each progressive level because of the immediate feedback provided A caveat To facilitate higherlevel learning detailed feedback on SELF TESTS must be based on instructor s accumulated experience of how students tend to interact with material plus awareness of common misconceptons learning Vitfalls etc not a job for new TA assigned to course for the rst time REFERENCE Larry Michaelsen L Dee Fink Robert H Black 1996 What ever facult developer needs to know about learning groups in L Richlin ed To Improve the Academy Vol 1 5 pp 3157 Stillwater OK New Forums Press and the Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education and assorted workshop handouts See also httpwwwouedulidplteamlearningindexhtm MORE ON THE IFAT FORM WebCT anonymous online survey tool used to assess students attitudes about the form Question I liked using the IFAT form during the Midterm Exam r l Strongly agree 2 Agree r 3 Neutral r 4 Disagree r 5 Strongly disagree Answer Value Frequency Distribution 1 074 I 3 H i 0 20 2 3 0 1 I 4 0 3 I 5 0 1 I t Question The IFAT Form helped me on the test because knowing the right answer to some questions helped to guide me to the right answer in other questions r l Strongly Agree r 2 Agree r 3 Neutral r 4 Disagree r 5 Strongly Disagree Answer Value Frequency Distribution 1 0 748 2 0 307 7 3 0 l7 4 0 4 7 5 7 0 0 i 7 Question The IF AT form had the following effect on my morale during the Midterm Exam r l t had a positive effect on my morale because I gained con dence with each correct answer I scratched off r 2 It had a positive effect on my morale because I knew I could get partial credit even if I didn t get it right the rst time r 3 It didn t affect my morale one way or the other r 4 It had a negative effect on my morale because I lost con dence when I discovered I was wrong I would rather not have known r 5 It had a negative effect on my morale because I got more and more anxious with each question knowing I39d already gotten some wrong Answer Value FrequencyDistribution 7 r 1 0 46 2 0 45 3 0 4 4 0 2 I 5 6 2 I V Student comments from anonymous online survey I thought the lFAT form was helpful because even thought I would get a couple answers wrong the first time I knew that I could still get partial credit tor it I also like it because it is kind of fun and different from ordinary tests I just wish that the questions were a bit easier that s all The lfAt form helps me understand just why I got an answer wrong versus other classes where you lose a point or two without any explanation The best way to learn is from one39s mISIaKes I feel it is a very fair way to do a test because we are really learning and it forces you to learn what the correct answer is instead of just getting one try and not knowing if you are right or wrong I thought it was a good way to take the midterm I liked knowing when I got the right answer and when I missed an answer it made me want to concentrate harder and get the next one right The IfAt form made the test more interesting by having to scratch off the answers It helps me to keep from zoning out too much during the test The form was a good tool because it allowed me to have partial credit for answers if I wasn39t sure between two answers This also helped because if I got the answer right the second time it allowed me to straighten out the two concepts in my head ut au0weu nor interactiVe learning with the test I really liked knowing what questions I got right or wrong and then using those questions to help answer later questions It also helped my confidence in the test because I knew right away that I did really well and I believe that that also helped me in the second essay section of the test I got a lot better grade on the test because of the IfAt form Sometimes I read questions wrong when I really understand the material Because we use these forms I was able to correct my mistakes within the next try I got an A but would have certainly had a B if not for the form Thanks It was good until the last couple questions When I missed some of the questions I became discouraged On this test I truly believe that for me it wasn39t a positive thing I didn39t do very well so when I knew that I felt horrible leaving the test Question The IFAT form should be used again on the Final Exam 1n thlS course r 1 Strongly agree r 2 Agree r 3 Neutral r 4 Disagree r 5 Strongly disagree Answer Value FrequencyrDist ribu oui 1 0 7s 72 70175 7 77777777 3 0 4 7 7 7 7 4 0 2 I if 5 0 0 if
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