Chapter 1 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christine Ledingham on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 0530 at Brown University taught by Dr. Richard Bungiro in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Principles of Immunology in Biology at Brown University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
IMMUNO CHAPTER 1: Overview of the immune system Variola major Virus that causes smallpox, 30% mortality rate variolation Technique in which dried crusts from smallpox, bits of disease, are inserted into small cuts in the skin Attenuated Weakened form of bacteria, such as cholera, that can then strain be injected to prevent a huge outbreak of the disease = vaccine Herd immunity When decreasing the number of individuals who can harbor and spread an infectious agent significantly decreases the chances that susceptible individuals will become infected. However, this ends when the number of unvaccinated people grows steadily phagocytes Certain white blood cells that ingest microorganisms and other foreign material Humoral Immunologic events carried out by antibodies which are immunity contained in body fluids immunoglobin Soluble active molecules that are antibodies, work in fluid to neutralize or precipitate toxins Passive When immune protection is delivered via emergency immunity immune serum, passive bc the individual did not make his own immune response against the pathogen. However, short lived and limited. Active immunity Via vaccinations, bc host can then produce his own immunity, long-lived protection. lymphocyte Cell responsible for cellular and humoral immunity T Cells Lymphocytes derived from the thymus. Impart cellular immunity. These can perform many functions, from secreting soluble messengers that direct other immune cells or do direct killing of infected cells. B Cells Lymphocytes derived from the bursa of fabricius = bone marrow. Produce antibodies to confer humoral immunity. Antibodies that have receptor proteins that bind to specific antigens and tag them for destruction. antigen General term for any substance that elicits a specific response by B or T lymphocytes. Selective theory Each cell makes many copies of just one membrane- bound receptor to bind to and eradicate an antigen, based on paul Erlich’s side chain theory. The selected B cell can be triggered to proliferate and secrete many copies of these receptors in soluble form (antibodies) once it has been selected by antigen binding. pathogens Organisms causing disease, induce illness in the host by pathogenesis - viruses - parasites - fungi - bacteria CTLs Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, or Tc cells, that have recognition molecules placed inside of cells, intracellular receptors bind to viral proteins present in the cytosol and initiate early warning signs Th cells T helper cells that are infected by HIV, guide the behavior of other immune cells like B cells. PAMPs Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns, common foreign structures that characterize whole groups of pathogens PRRs Pattern recognition receptors that specifically recognize PAMPs, such as polysaccharide residues that then trigger the cascade of events targeting it for destruction. These germaline-encoded recognition molecules are a first line of defense! Generation of Allows us to have T and B cells that continue to evolve diversity with evoloving pathogens. tolerance Hallmark of the immune response, in which the system avoids accidentally recognizing and destroying host tissues. Dysfunctional tolerance = autoimmune diseases Innate immunity Built in molecular and cellular mechanisms that are encoded int e germline and are evolutionarily more primitive, aimed at preventing infection or quickly eliminating common invaders. Example: PRRs complement Series of preexisting serum proteins that bind common pathogen-associated structures and initiate labeling and destruction Adaptive More attuned to subtle molecular differences, relies on B immunity and T lymphocytes, takes longer but more antigen specific. It is informed by the struggles of the innate system cytokines Soluble messengers that allow two immunities to communicate with one another chemokines Subset of cytokines that have chemotactic activity and can recruit specific cells to the Inflammatory When chemokines recruit stuff to the site, swelling and response heat and tenderness at the site of exposure Immunologic Human immune system can respond more quickly to the memory same infection the second time around. Primary Key lymphocytes are clonally selected, honed, and response enlisted to resolve the infection Secondary All subsequent encounters with the same antigen or response pathogen. Memory cells reenlisted to fight again. anaphylaxis Extreme, rapid, sometimes lethal overreaction of the immune response to something it has encountered before. Involve antibody called IgE, or immunoglobin E autoimmunity Sudden inability to distinguish between self and nonself tissues, both genetic and environmental factors involved Primary Arise from inherited genetic factors immunodeficenc ies Secondary Aries from disruption/damage by chemical, physical, or immunodeficien biological agents cies SCID Severe combined immunodeficiency, affects B and T cells and wipes out adaptive immunity, resulting in death at an early age. Opportunistic Infections by ubiquitous microorganisms that cause no infections harm in an immune competent host but which are often observed only in cases of underlying immune deficiency malignancy Cancer, when cells divide out of control, increased genetic instability gives them an advantage in terms of evading immune detection and elimination.
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