Class Note for MIC 205A at UA
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
ChemiStryi Bonds Saltsi Ionic Bond Formation Chemlcals Na is an electron donor and Cl is an electron accegtor Microbiology 5 Building Blocks A f 5 EE A s v saws z 9 Ko 00 co 3 no no Nacl lonic Bond MethaneCovalent Bond One C and 4 H atoms share electrons to form the molecule CH4 m N W m can coo 88 33 5 a N waummu Ciiiunaemn SOdiulViLllKamAElViOlemAle quot C N 4 quot c N 39 quot C quot Na l Nlr Cr 2 n no N M Wm amnan x quotmm Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen Bond In H20 the electrons are closer to the 0 than to the H atoms The O is slightly negative and the H Hymgan um atoms are slightly positive The attraction ofa positive H to a f c K negative 0 of another water H H molecule is hydrogen bonding Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions form or break bonds Reactions that require energy are called endergonic reactions Reactions that release energy are exergonic reactions mi 1 Enniw lm Is this an exergonic or endergonic reaction Chemical Reactions Synthesis reactions form new bonds anabolism Decomposition reactions break bonds catabolism degradation Exchange reactions are part synthesis and part decomposition Some reactions are reversible Important Biological Molecules Inorganic molecule lacks C lonic bonds Organic molecule contains C covalent bonds Water Polar molecule unequal distribution of charges Hydrogen bonding Solvent Reactant or product in chemical reactions Temperature buffer Acid Base Salt pH m is a measure of how acidic how i many H are present E o The pH scale is logarithmic 5qu At pH 7 neutral pH H OH Buffers keep pH from changing i drastically 4 Z ff ff lllquot Naming Molecules Functlonal Groups in Q Functional groups are used to Organic Elf Lquot quotquotquotl39 39 39quot l39 classify molecules l N EXAMPLE an amino acid would MOIeCUIeS HA W W have which functional groups Table 23 T quotT Apolymer is a large molecule of 3 quot quot covalently bonded small molecules W Carbohydrate Dehydration Synthesis cum cum CH20n H H o 7 We 0 H lllDehydmlian N H a H09quot H OH N N quot0 synthesis 0H N J N Mo Sugars and starches food No UH quota cw Ho a cum w reserves eg glucose fructose Glucosn Hzo Frucmse Sucrose Waiar DNA eg deoxyribose ribose CEN ZOE CEH EOS C ZHEEOquot Cell walls eg muramic acid Nacetyl Dehydration removes H20 glucosamine Hydrolysis adds water Lipid carboxyl uyuummon group chain f A r A H OHH HHHHHHHHHHHH I II I I i I l I I l l I l I I I l HT f T f I HHHHHHHHHHHHHHH H C OH I 2 Fairy acmlpalmmc actdCt5H3 COOH HCDH 0 H a Glycerol Lipids Nonpolar molecules of C H O Triglycerides fats glycerol fatty acids Saturated fatty acids no double bonds between C atoms are more tightly packed than unsaturated fatty acids Fat Triglyceride Hm viim up Prvrrvwvvr quotconcocccccgccc I an lC uxyycocm up u n u 4 u n l I I A iceorcrgrqecrc rc ecrc rc H gt4 n n n n a n la Mpcculr w m mammal 4 1 om minute3w mo lln xmval I a mi Phospholipids l l a Saturated fa y acids closely Picked Myriam m Unsaluraled lauy atlas mme chkedl c Sleml molecule separate my and chains Saturated Unsaturated m a m Aid Cholesterol A Complex Lipid H30 W CH3 CH3 HO Sterols are found in plasma membranes of one group of bacteria Amino Acid Amino acids have amino and carboxyl groups Table 24 slde OH Cyclic s39de group E g39roup R H 0 CH2 Niclrcf Carboxyl H o rou gt H OH 9 p N OF C H H OH bTyrosine a Generalized amino acid Peptide Bond Peptidebond H Dahydralion H H i 0 H i i0 synlhesis H i39 ii lil l 0 N c C N C C y N I c N o C H20 H H CH3 OH mmungO H H CH3 OH Glycme Alanine Glycylalanlne wale39 H20 a dipeplidel Amino acids form polymers called proteins Protein Structure PrimaLy linear sequence of aa SecondaLy localized folding TertiaLy overall 3D structure QuaternaLy association of 2 or more protein subunits into a protein Denaturation unfolding a w H r w r H R w 739 w H on R o N o R o H o a o H W a Primary slmzlure mtypev ae stand Hydrogen bond wammmc ltmeamy 4331 2 RH xy mpvm icy mmw mmm D madman 7 r r r v 39 L eel msecanaary smmm LonHi many new and plearai sheets 3 l H mm 3 notygzuude strandsi 1 J J L 7 Helix r Flaaleusheal i i Deoxyribonucleic acid A amp G are purines C amp T are pyrimidines Pilosvhala Sugar Adenine A Wmme T Sugal Phasphale Adenine nucleonde Tliymlne nucleollde DNA and RNA DNA contains the genetic blueprint for the cell RNA can be messenger ribosomal or transfer RNA it functions in protein synthesis ATP ATP has high energy bonds P Phosplizlns a ll HOiTDi o H 1041 9 10 17 H H l 4 LA icicHg am 0H 0H What you should know Recognize symbols for key elements Ionic versus covalent bonds pH hydrogen bonds in solutions Functional groups in organic molecules Biological functions ofcarbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids and ATP
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