Survey of American History - Chapter 1 & 2 Notes (taken from book)
Survey of American History - Chapter 1 & 2 Notes (taken from book) hist 1903
Arkansas Tech University
Popular in Survey of American History
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Stackhouse on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 1903 at Arkansas Tech University taught by hollis tarver in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History in History at Arkansas Tech University.
Reviews for Survey of American History - Chapter 1 & 2 Notes (taken from book)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 01/26/16
Chapter 1 Notes • Who? When? & Why? Did the first people inhabit the western hemisphere? o The best guess as to when they came was 50,000 years ago. o Scholars suggest that the migration occurred over 2,000 years and that people settled into every habitable area they could find, including: islands off the coast. o They spoke at least 300 different languages. o Governments usually consisted of a council of elders and clan chiefs. • Economy of Ancient People o Their economy was mostly agricultural, that is, hunting and gathering. • What triggered the movement of Europeans to the New World? o The Crusades caused many people to migrate to the eastern countries were they saw many nicer and finer things, and as a consequence they developed expensive taste. o These new desires pushed them to explore to try to find these nice goods for their own. o Marco Polo also wrote about the experiences he had in China and this fed the people’s desire for these nice things. • Consequences of new trade routes o The new urban development encouraged many artisans to move to these cities which gave way to the new capitalistic economy. o Many new inventions like the astrolabe and printing press were created in order to support the economy. o The power of the Pope and church was supplanted by the ruling monarchs and titled noblemen. • Christopher Columbus o He was looking for the quickest route to Asia for nice goods, but landed on what is now the Bahamas, and he called the natives there Indians because he thought he was in Asia. • Amerigo Vespucci o He was one of the first to really start exploring what we know as America, and he named is the “New World”. • Hernan Cortez o He made his way to the New World in 1504, and the king of the Aztecs thought that he was a god so he sent him a lot of gold, which made the Spanish realize that there was much wealth in the New World. o The Spanish killed many Aztecs with diseases such as smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus. • Francisco Pizarro o He conquered Peru and made off with a lot of gold because of it. o This produced so much wealth in Spain that inflation occurred which drove up prices substantially. • Ranks in Spanish Colonies o Peninsulares- people who were born in Spain. o Criollos- people who were born in the Americas by Spanish parents, and most were landowners. o Mestizos- people who were mixed Italian and Spanish blood. o Mulattoes- people with mixed European and African blood. • The French in the Americas o They conquered much of what is known of Canada, and made alliances with some Indian tribes in order so constitute fur trade. o The rivalry between tribes because of fur trading led to many Indian wars. o The Dutch also traded furs with the Indians. • The English in the Americas o Queen Elizabeth was a major reason that the English made it to the New World. o The colony of Roanoke is still a mystery when settlers were dropped off there and when new settlers came back the island was deserted. o London Company- some settlers made a joint stock company in which shares were sold to stockholders for twelve pounds of shillings in order to sponsor settlers to colonize in North America. o Virginia was one of the first towns colonized and it was named Jamestown. They received help from the Powhatan tribe who taught them how to grow corn and catch fish. o Tobacco was also discovered in this town, and became a very valuable cash crop. This brought many new settlers to the New World and made for a thriving colony. • The “Great Assault” of 1644 o This was when the indian tribes killed over 500 settlers in the colonies because of their increasing control and growing numbers. • Religious Freedom in the Americas o Following the Protestant Reformation and the religious wars between various sects and creeds, persecution of religious beliefs became a standard practice. o As a response to the new formation of the Anglican Church, a number of Protestants felt that the Church of England needed to be purified, so they formed a group called the Puritans. They gained permission to settle in Virginia to escape religious persecution. When they landed in Plymouth the Mayflower Contract was signed that stated that they would make their own laws and choose their own officials. • Massachusetts Bay Company o Was created so the Puritans could establish a colony in North America. o The company grew much larger because of trade and it was eventually completely independent from England. • Toleration Act- this stated that no person who believe in Christ would be persecuted for practicing his or her own religion. o This led to the development of 3 forms of government in America: royal, corporate, and proprietary. • Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina o An attempt to engraft in American a feudal system with a sharply defined social structure, including titles, and a similar hierarchal judicial system. o It also recognized and legalized slavery. o By the end of the century, 50,000 colonists occupied this area because of the attraction created by the elements stated above. • Three major areas of the New World: New England, Middle, Southern colonies o New England ▪ Engaged in shipbuilding and fishing to sustain the area. These colonies were also mainly Puritan so they focused on church and were founded primarily for their religious purposes. o Middle ▪ Engaged in farming, commerce, and fur trade. The population of this area was quite diverse consisting of mostly Dutch and Germans. o Southern ▪ Engaged in the cultivation and harvesting of tobacco, cotton, rice, and indigo to sustain society. This area relied mostly on indentured servants, and eventually slavery was brought to the Southern regions to do this laboring work. The people of the South tended to be more homogeneous that the New England and Middle regions. • Dominion of England o Created by James II in an attempt to exercise greater control over several northern colonies in 1686. They were Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. Later he added the colonies of New York and New Jersey. o His attempt to create this was for the case of mercantilism. The colonies were necessary in order to provide goods to the mother country, England, who would then sell them to outside nations to make maximum profit. o Parliament in the 17and 18 centuries attempted to monopolize the trade with its colonies and exclude foreign countries. o This created the system in America where the more money someone had the higher they were ranked. It no longer mattered whose family you belonged to. • Puritans and Quakers o The Puritans realized that mercantilism was taking over America so they created the synods, which were tests given to government officials to test their knowledge of God. • The Great Awakening o This was a religious frenzy in America that promoted individualism and antiauthoritarianism, which permanently altered and diminished power of ministers. o It also supported the founding of new colleges to promote education. o It gave an overall sense of freedom and that the people could choose their individual paths. • The Seven Years War or “French and Indian War” o A war that started in 1754 that was over land rights. o It led to the first attempt of American settlers to form a continental government to act for the entire English population within the colonies. Chapter 2 Notes • Proclamation of 1763 o This document was a response to the Indians uprising and destroying many of the British colonies. o It stated that the British government must keep a standing 10,000 troops in North America at all times to maintain order and control. o It also forbade colonists from settling north of the Appalachian Mountains. o It was meant to pacify the Indian tribes, but it only enraged the colonists. • Sugar Act of 1764 o This was created to try to help the British pay off the huge debt they had stacked up. o It enforced duties on all English imports into America, and it threatened to disrupt the lives of many colonists due to its increasing costs. • Quartering Act o This act required the colonists in America to provide lodging to troops stationed in their communities to protect them. • Stamp Act o This act required there to be a stamp placed basically on all paper goods in America. • Consequences of these Acts o This created quite an uproar in the colonies. This is where the term “taxation without representation” was coined. o The Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty were also created in order to lead many riots. • Boston Massacre o This was when some British soldiers deployed in America were in a rioting crowd and they shot and killed 5 men and wounded 6 others. o The word of this spread throughout the colonies and fueled the rebellion. • Boston Tea Party o After the outrageous Tea Act was passed, colonists were even more enraged so they dressed up as Indians one night and dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor. o This lead to the creation of the Intolerable Acts, which said that all of the tea trade would be closed off to Boston until they repaid all of the damage they had done. • Battle of Bunker Hill o This was the bloodiest battle of the Revolutionary War, killing 1/8 of all of the soldiers in the war. • Declaration of Independence o The colonists were ultimately tired of their “mother country” impeding their development, so they created this document to separate themselves from Great Britain. • Articles of Confederation o These articles stated that all of the states would work together in a Union, but they were each individually still free and independent. o It could propose laws but the states were not required to obey them. o The government also lacked the power to tax, and had to rely on contributions from each state. o They also didn’t have unanimous consent from all of the states to enact the articles. • The Treaty between America and France o This was created because the French realized they would be better off to be in alliance with the Americans, and it stated that each of them could not lay down arms until the British relinquished control of America. o This lead to the French and British war. o After many battles, on April 15, 1783, Congress ratified the treaty that said that America was independent from Great Britain. • The Convention for revising the Articles of Confederation o All of the states except Rhode Island decided that the Articles of Confederation needed to be revised, and during this convention they elected George Washington as president among other things. o Virginia Plan ▪ “Large State Plan” established a government consisting of 3 independent branches: legislative, judicial, and executive. Each of the parts would have certain powers to keep the others in check. ▪ Congress consisted of two houses: lower house(elected every 2 years by the people) and the upper house(elected by the people). o New Jersey Plan ▪ “Small State Plan” stated that each state would have one vote so no states would get more deciding power in the government. o The Connecticut Compromise was created to combine the two plans into something beneficial for everyone. ▪ Congress would consist of two houses, lower elected by the people on basis of population, and the upper house would be elected by 2 representatives from each state. ▪ Congress would also regulate trade. o The Constitution was created after months of debating, and so the United States were formed. ▪ The Constitution would replace the Articles of Confederation • The First Congress o This was one of the most productive congresses of the US history. First of all, it raised revenue, established the executive departments of State, Treasury, and War; created the federal judiciary system; and passed a Bill of Rights. It also established the office of the attorney general.