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Chapter 1

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Riley Spencer
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Notes for chapter 1- gives a general cover of stability vs. change, nature & nurture, and the three domains of development.
Infant and Child Development
Dr. Anthis
Class Notes
Psychology, infant and child development




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"I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Riley!!!"

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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Riley Spencer on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 210 at Southern Connecticut State University taught by Dr. Anthis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Infant and Child Development in Psychlogy at Southern Connecticut State University.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
PSY 210 Chapter 1 Notes Why Study Child Development?  Experiences in childhood shape who we become as adults. o Ex.) the ability of a four year old to resist temptation predicted a greater delay of gratification and self-control in adolescence. o Walter Mischel was famous for his delayed of gratification study of the marshmallow test. Who Needs to Understand Development?  Families o Understand a child’s needs and abilities at each stage o Provide the appropriate amount and type of support and stimulation for a child.  Example- a parent is not just buying 10 books, but they need to be committed to read to their child every night before bed. / Knowing the importance of reading  Parents or children who are staying in jail or prison learn to stay connected with each other through letters.  Child development professionals o Daycare providers, community organizers, teachers, therapists, psychologists, and outreach workers  Child life specialists are a great example, as one of their responsibilities is to let children know that the idea of surgery, etc. is not scary, and they treat children with love and care. o Use of general information, as well as specialized information, to promote growth and well-being.  Policymakers (doing research on issues relating to children) o Creating and influencing social policy to help facilitate healthy growth in a community. o Teaching sex ed to children and offering free contraceptives and birth control. o Understanding Development  Children develop within three distinct domains: o Physical- height, head circumference  Larger head size is a sign of cognitive deficiencies. A cause of autism is when a child’s brain develops too quickly. o Cognitive- memory, second language, thinking logically o Social-emotional- personality, managing emotions  Conscientiousness, or social dependability, predicts longer longevity / the better children are at controlling their emotions, the longer they live. o The domains influence one another! Nature and Nurture  Do our behaviors, thoughts, and feelings result from o Nature- our genetic outcome, or o Nurture- the influence of the environment?  Originally thought of as “nature vs. nurture”, research shows that we are influenced from both. Continuous vs. Stage-like Development  Continuous development- o Quantitative changes and incremental theories o Height o Vocabulary o Knowledge  Stages (discontinuous) o Qualitative changes and stage theories o Crawling vs. walking o Learning abstract concepts  Theorists: o Sigmund Freud (Emotional/Psychoanalytical) o Erik Erikson (Life Stage theory) o Jean Piaget (Cognitive) Stability vs. Change  Are we the same people as we were when younger, or did we change along the way? o One study shows that aggressiveness stays with us as we develop, however, it may change over time.  Childhood- hitting, kicking, throwing objects  Teenager- sarcasm, gossip, spreading rumors o Conscientiousness is stable, possibly changing. Individual Differences  Equifinality- Different pathways of development can result in the same outcome  Multinality- The same pathway can lead to different outcomes The Role of the Child in Development  Behaviorism- Children are passive recipients of forces outside their control  Jean Piaget- Children actively explore their environments  Lev Vygotsky- Learning is a collaborative process between the child and more experienced people around him Contexts of Development  Family o Socialization o Socioeconomic Status (SES)  A higher SES means families are provided with more resources to help with a healthy child development. If the SES is lower for parents, their child is more likely to be born prematurely or with a low birth weight, and children with low SES do not perform as well in academics. o School o Community o Culture  Emerges from an environmental niche  Individualism vs. collectivism  Cultural neuroscience Practice Question Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory would suggest that the best way to help toddlers develop a sense of autonomy would be to a. Be patient and allow the child to do things on their own, even if he or she struggles a bit. b. Allow the child to make his or her own decisions about what he or she wants to eat and when he or she wants to eat it. c. Let the child learn by watching other children of her own age, rather than getting help from an adult. d. Hold very high standards for the child and be critical of the child’s performance when the child doesn’t meet your expectations. PSY 210 Lecture Notes: Ch. 1-4 *Chapter 1 notes are already printed out! Chapter 2 Why theories of development are important:  Developmental Theories are models of development that allows us to o Organize knowledge and… o Make predictions about new information  In understanding development, a theory must explain o How change happens o Why some aspects of behavior stay the same o Whether the change is due to nature, nurture, or an interaction between the two Theories of Child and Adolescent Development  Psychoanalytic theory o Sigmund Freud believed we are unaware of some thoughts and feelings, which are in our unconscious mind o The key to healthy psychological functioning lies in discovering unconscious thoughts and bringing them to conscious thought  This could be accomplished using free association.  What is the first thing that comes to mind when I say ___? o Personality is made up of three parts:  Id- operates on the “pleasure principle”  Infants are pure Id- seeking immediate gratification for urges  Ego- operates on the “reality principle”  Develops around 2 years of age- interacting with the world to get what they want  Superego- operates on the “morality principle”  Between 5-7 years of age, children can act morally on their own o Erik Erikson believed in the importance of social experiences, rather than sexual urges. o His psychosocial stages of development are focused around central conflicts between our biological development and our experiences in our environment. o In each stage, there is a crisis that must be resolved before we can (emotionally) develop on to the next stage. #throwback o If we do not resolve the crisis, it will make resolving the crises of later stages much more difficult if not impossible, as in college course prereqs. o Resolution of which stage is likely a prerequisite for the Intimacy vs. Isolation stage?  Behaviorism and social cognitive theory o Behaviorism focused on environmental control over observable behaviors. o Classical conditioning: pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit the same response o Operant conditioning: increasing or decreasing the likelihood of a voluntary response due to the consequences that follow that response.  Devleloped by B.F. Skinner  More emphasis on what happens after the behavior, NOT before  Use of reinforcement to increase likelihood of behaviour  Use of punishment to decrease likelihood of behaviour  Can be used to improve lives of those on the autism spectrum  Positive reinforcement- adding something pleasurable to increase behaviour  Punishment- administering a disagreeable consequence to decrease a behaviour  Negative reinforcement- removing something disagreeable to increase a behaviour o People can learn new behaviours simply by watching others and imitating them rather than by receiving direct reinforcement of their own behaviours from the environment.  Developed by Albert Bandura  Focused more on internal processes than Watson or Skinner  The “Bobo doll” experiment*  Also proposed “self-efficacy”  Have power to influence our life  If feel helpless, don’t know o How to study o Take care of health o Pursue goals  Cognitive development o Jean Piaget believed children were “little scientists” who are constantly updating their understanding of the world.  Organizing concepts, objects, and experiences into schemas  Assimilation of new experiences into existing schemas  Accommodation of schemas to sit new experiences  “Last night, your significant other was seen kissing a girl, and she probably liked it.”  Evolutionary theories o Based on Darwin’s idea of natural selection o Ethology & Konrad Lorenz  Imprinting- an adaptive attachment of animal babies to their mothers*  Evolutionary Developmental Psychology  What children do is a preparation for adult life  What children do is adaptive at their own specific stage in development and circumstances in life. o Ex) Girls enter puberty at an earlier age if…  Their father is absent or severely dysfunctional  (What about if they are overweight?) o Ecological Theory- Uri Bronfenbrenner said individuals grow and develop within a set of five nested influences:  Microsystem: systems in which we are involved (school, work, family)  Mesosystem: interaction among microsystems  Exosystem: outside our influence, but still affect us (SCSU president’s decision making)  Macrosystem: cultural norms that affect our lives (state of CT’s decision making)  Chronosystem: the dimension of time (historical changes in economics and education) o Modern application of ecological theory- Expanded the range and number of variables researchers include to understand a child’s development o This leads to the creation of social policy meant to provide help to children and their families.  FMLA and the Headstart program  Dynamic systems theory  Neuropsychology and behavioral genomics  Culture and developmental theory The 5 Stages of Development  Oral Stage- birth to 18 months o Focus of pleasure is on the mouth  Anal Stage- 18 to three years o Focus of pleasure is on the anus, potty training  Issues of control  Phallic Stage- three to six years o Focus of pleasure is on the genitals  Latency Stage- six to 12 years o Sexual drive goes underground o Transfers interest from parents to peers  Genital Stage- 12 and older o Adult sexuality Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory  Vygotsky focused more on the importance of the social world and culture in promoting cognitive growth.  Children grow through interaction in their zone of proximal development. o Scaffolding o What can do alone vs. with support Information Processing  Connectionist or Neural Network Model o Memory is a neural network of concepts nodes interconnected by links o When you think of “obesity” what else comes to mind? Research Methods  Theories must be reliable and valid.  The scientific method informs and guides all efforts to answer scientific questions. o First, we ask a question (hypothesis) o Next, we identify the relevant factors or elements (operationalize a concept). o Then, we out our question to the test. o We want to be able to generalize our results from a particular sample to a larger population. Methods & Measures  Self-report measures- a fast, efficient way to gather data o Surveys o Questionnaires o Interviews  Must be precise, well written, and understandable.  Social desirability- Some respondents may give the answer they think the researcher is looking for, or that makes them look good.  Wording of questions  Psychological measures allow us to measure and interpret biological skills without relying on verbal skills. o Electroencephalograms (EEG) measure electrical activity in the brain. o Event-related Potentials (ERP) measure electrical response to stimuli. o Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gives us a picture of the structure of the brain. o Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) measures changes in blood flow in the brain.  Observational- watching children on the playground or adults at work for aggression  Self-Report- asking children or adults to report if think are aggressive  Case Study- An in-depth study of a single individual or small group of individuals o The findings may have limited generalizability, but can be a rich source of new hypotheses with more representative groups. The Experimental Method  Independent Variable (IV): The variable that is manipulated o Experimental group receives IV, control group does not.  Dependent variable (DV): The outcome variable that is measured  Three Critical Features: o 1.) Random assignment of individuals to treatment conditions o 2.) Manipulation of independent variable o 3.) Control group  Quasi-Experiment: o No #1 or random assignment The Correlational Method  Determine if 2 or more variables are related (can’t always conduct experimental)  Correlation: a measure of the relationship o Number between -1.0 and 1.0 (size or strength & direction) o Positive: variables move in the same direction  Ex) a student’s texting in class increases, so does his/her ignorance of the material o Negative: variables move in opposite direction  Ex) a student’s texting in class increases, professor’s view of student decreases Developmental Research Designs  Cross-Sectional Designs o >1 cohorts (a generation) studied) o 1 time of testing o Studying age differences at any one time  Longitudinal Designs o 1 cohort o +1 time of testing o Study age changes across time in one cohort Age, Cohort, and Time of Measurement Effects  Age effects: changes which occur due to age o Desirable, what the researchers want to know  Cohort Effects: born in one historical context o Changes due to differences in society o Undesirable, problem in cross-sectional designs  Time of Measurement Effects: historical o Take place at time of data collection o Undesirable, problem in longitudinal designs Sequential Designs  A combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal o Advantages of both designs  Gives information about: o Which age-related trends are age effects  Ex) being a certain age o Which age-related trends are truly cohort effects  Ex) growing up in the 1950s with stricter gender roles vs. now o Which age-related trends are a result of time effects  Ex) gender roles have become less strict over time of study Interpreting the Results of a Study  Don’t generalize results to populations not found in the representative sample.  Understand that most results are “averages” and won’t apply to every individual.  Statistical significance implies that the results were not found by chance. It doesn’t mean the results are of great practical significance.  Be wary of the results of one individual study. Results need to be replicated in numerous studies. A meta-analysis is a summary of all studies. Ethical Considerations  Expose the child to minimal risks  Informed consent of parent and child  Right to withdraw from research  Confidentiality of information Practice Question: Because most human characteristics are complex, many genes act together to determine a trait. This is called: a. A pleiotropic effect b. Multiphasic inheritance c. Polygenic inheritance* d. A mutation Chapter 3 What is a gene?  A segment of DNA on a chromosome that creates proteins that are the basis for the body’s development and functioning. The Study of Genetics and Behaviour  Molecular genetics- research focused on the identification of particular genes to describe how these genes to describe how these genes work within the cell.  Behavioural genetics- research to determine the degree of genetic basis for a behaviour, trait, or ability.  Behavioural genomics- a measure of the extent to which genes determine a particular behaviour or characteristic. Three Techniques  Heritability of IQ is about .50 o Genetic differences account for 50% of variation in IQ and environmental differences for 50% o Heritability of IQ grows from infancy to adulthood, so role of genes grows with age o The role of an intellectually stimulating environment is most important in infancy, childhood, and adolescence  Concordance rates o Statistical calculations to estimate the degree to which heredity and environment account for individual differences in a trait of interest o A trait is inheritable if the concordance rates are higher for more genetically related than for less genetically related pairs of people  Correlation coefficients o Used when a trait (intelligence) can be present in varying degrees Our Genetic Beginnings  When a male’s sperm penetrates a woman’s egg during fertilization, the result is a zygote.  23 chromosomes are donated by the egg, 23 by the sperm, forming 23 pairs. o The firrd 22 are identical o The 23 pair:  XX = Female  XY = Male  Only the father may donate an X or Y-chromosome, meaning his genes determine the sex of the child.  Sometimes, there can be more than one child (3.3%) o Monozygotic twins  One zygote splits into two o Dizygotic twins  Two eggs are fertilized by two sperm  Same genetic similarity as siblings Mendelian Inheritance: Dominant and Recessive Genes  Your phenotype is all of the genetically inherited traits that you display. o Ex) Having green eyes  Your genotype is all of the genes that make up a specific human, whether the traits are displayed or not. o Ex) You have a gene for green eyes and for brown eyes, even though you display green eyes.  While we inherit genes from both parents (one set of 23 chromosomes each), we don’t display everything they give us.  Some genes are dominant and will always display in our phenotype.  Some genes are recessive and will only display in our phenotype with two copies of the same chromosome for that trait. Genetic Disorders & Genetic Inheritance  There are three types of disorders to which genes contribute: o Single-gene disorders  Ex) an individual inherits two recessive genes for that disorder, as in sickle-cell anemia o Chromosomal Disorders  Ex) When there are more or less than two chromosomes in a particular pair (Downs is 3 on 21) o Polygenetic Inheritance- many genes contribute to a behaviour or trait  Multifactorial Inheritance Disorders- the interaction of many genes that also interact with environmental influences.  Ex) Depression, alcoholism, schizophrenia, autism Genetic Counseling & Testing  In each pregnancy, any woman statistically has a 3% chance of having a child with a genetically based disorder.  Genetic counselling for those at higher risk can include: o Family history of genetic disorders o Blood tests for certain genes before pregnancy o During pregnancy:  Blood tests- alpha-fetoprotein test  Amniocentesis  Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Behaviour Genetics  Studying how much a behaviour is attributable to: o A child’s genotype and… o A child’s environment  We can do this by studying… o Adopted children  MUST look at the concordance rate! o Comparisons between identical and fraternal twins o Identical twins reared apart Interaction of Genes and Environment  How much can certain genetic traits be affected by the environment?  Canalization: The degree to which the expression of a gene is influenced by the environment o High canalization- very little susceptibility to environmental influences, and thus, few likely outcomes. Ex) motor skills such as sitting up o Low canalization- higher susceptibility to environmental influences, and thus, many likely outcomes. Ex) intelligence level  Epigenetics: a system by which genes are activated or silenced in response to events or circumstances in the individual’s environment. o May have genetic predisposition to cancer, but never develop given healthy lifestyle How Genes Shape the Environment  Passive gene-environment interaction: a child’s family shares genetically determined abilities and interests o Parents give singing lessons  Active gene-environment interaction: one’s genetic environment becomes a driving force for children to seek out experiences that fit their genetic endowments o Child asks for singing lessons  Evocative gene-environment interaction: children’s genetic endowment causes them to act in a way that draws out or “evokes” certain responses from those around them o James Bae Bay having perfect pitch Practice Question Female conceptions are more vulnerable during prenatal development than male conceptions True False* Chapter 4 Conception  An ovum is released by the female’s ovaries during ovulation.  During intercourse, the male releases approximately 300 million sperm during ejaculation.  If just one of these sperm penetrates the outer layer of the ovum, this results in its fertilization, beginning the prenatal journey of the child.  Conception can also occur other ways, such as IUI and IVF. The Three Stages of Prenatal Development  The Germinal stage (conception to 2 weeks) o Begins after the sperm penetrates the egg o The zygote moves down the fallopian tube o Cell division- from one cell to 32 in four to five days o The zygote becomes a blastocyst and implants into the uterine wall.  The inner cell mass will become the embryo  The trophoblast will become the support system for the pregnancy  The Embryonic stage (2 weeks to 2 months) o The support system of the pregnancy  Chorion- the outer wall  Gives rise to the placenta  Amnion- the inner wall  Surrounds the fetus  Organogenesis  A critical period in development- miscarriage is common  An ultrasound can monitor the development  The Fetal stage (2 months to birth) o Continued growth of the fetus o Remarkable increase in size and weight o Development of genetalia  Males are more vulnerable to environmental toxins  Male embryos and fetuses may be more likely to end in miscarriage o Development of senses- What does the fetus experience?  Cutaneous senses- touch & pain  Chemical senses- taste & smell  Vestibular senses- equilibrium & balance  Auditory & visual senses Infertility  Failure to conceive a child after one year of frequent, unprotected sex in heterosexual couples may indicate infertility.  Possible causes: o Physical problems o Lifestyle factors o Maternal age & paternal age  Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) o IUI: Intrauterine Insemination o IVF: In Vitro Fertilization Three Trimesters of Pregnancy  0-3 months o Morning sickness due to hormonal changes o Fatigue  4-6 months o Woman feels the baby “moving” (quickening) o Activity level prenatally predicts activity level of the baby after birth  7-9 months o Fatigue and discomfort o Fetus “drops” to get into position for birth Health and Risk Factors  Miscarriage  Diet  Teratogens o Alcohol- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome o Tobacco- Asthma, SIDS, ADHD, learning disabilities o Prescription & illegal drugs- cognitive problems, tremors  Sexually Transmitted Diseases  Maternal stress  Environmental pollutants The Birth Experience  Labor & delivery o First stage of labor: Early & active labor  o Second stage: Pushing  Uterine contractions push the baby through the canal.  Woman feels a strong urge to push.  Malpresentation may require repositioning or surgery. o Third stage: Delivering the placenta Birthing Options  Locations: o Hospital, birthing center, home  Attended by: o Physician, midwife, doula, labor coach  Delivery: o Pain relief- epidural, nonpharmacological o Vaginal or cesarean Birth Experience of the Baby  Baby begins breathing on its own. o 10% may need resuscitation  APGAR assessment: o Activity o Pulse o Grimace (reflex) o Appearance o Respiration  APGAR scores require a score of 7 or higher for healthy assessment The Newborn- Capabilities  The baby can see, hear, touch, taste, and smell  Infant states o REM sleep o Regular sleep o Quiet alertness o Active alertness o Crying Risks to the Newborn’s Health & Well-Being  Premature birth- a birth occurring before 37 weeks gestational age  Low birth weight- a full-term infant who weighs less than 5 lbs., 4 oz.  Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) o Wide range of outcomes for premature infants  Mild to severe impairments in physical and/or cognitive development The Transition to Parenthood  Becoming a mother o Mothering behaviours are not instinctual! o Nurturing behaviour facilitated by the hormones oxytocin and lactin o The new role brings new stressors o Postpartum depression  Becoming a father o Couvade- a sympathetic pregnancy o Expectant fathers nurture and care for the partner o Often overcome with a rush of emotions following the birth  Becoming a family o Increase of anxiety and fatigue o Father becomes helper, mother becomes caregiver.


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