Chapter 2 Reading notes
Chapter 2 Reading notes HD 202
Popular in Middle childhood through Adolescence
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Popular in Human Development
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Coster on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 202 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Amy Cole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Middle childhood through Adolescence in Human Development at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Chapter 2 Genetic And Environmental Founda ons Vocabulary Phenotype directly observable characteristics p 51 Genotype complex blend of genetic information determining our species and in uences of all unique characteristics p 51 Chromosome rodlike structures that store and transmit genetic information p 51 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid the chemical substance chromosomes are made of p 52 Gene segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome p 52 ProteinCoding Genes directly affect our body s characteristics p 52 Regulator Genes modify the instructions given by proteincoding genes p 52 Gametes sex cells sperm or ovum p 53 Meiosis cell division process which gametes is formed and halves the number of chromosomes normally present in the body cells p 53 Zygote the resulting cell of a sperm and ovum uniting at conception p 53 Autosomes the 22 pairs of matching chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes p 53 Sex Chromosomes the 23rd pair of chromosomes FraternalDizygotic Twins the result of releasing and fertilization of two ova most common multiple offspring p 53 ldenticalMonozygotic Twins a zygote that duplicates and separates into two separate cell clusters developing into two individuals who have the same genetic makeup p 54 Allele each form of a gene p 55 Homozygous when both alleles from both parents are the same and the child will display this trait p 55 Heterozygous when the alleles are different the relationships between the alleles determines the phenotype p 55 DominantRecessive Inheritance occurs in heterozygous parings one allele affects the child s characteristics The dominant one is the that affects the recessive one is the one with no affect p 55 Carriers when a heterozygous individual has one recessive allele they can pass that trait to their child Incomplete Dominant both alleles are expressed in the phenotype resulting in a combined trait or one that is intermediate of the two p 57 XLinked Inheritance when a harmful allele is carried on the X chromosome p 57 Genomic Imprinting alleles are imprintedchemically marked through regulatory processes within the genome in a way that one pair member is activated regardless of its makeup p 58 Mutation sudden but permanent change in a DNA segment p 58 Polygenic Inheritance many genes affect the characteristic in question p 59 Genetic Counseling communication process designed to help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose best course of action in view of risks and family goals p 61 Prenatal Diagnostic Methods medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth p 64 Coparenting mutually supporting each parenting behaviors p 64 Socioeconomic Status a continuum index with 3 variables 1 years of education 2 prestige of ones job 3 income p 70 Subcultures groups of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture p 78 ExtendedFamily Thresholds parent and child live with one or more adult relatives p 78 Public Policies laws and government programs deigned to improve current conditions p 79 Behavioral Genetics eld devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity in human traits and abilities p 82 Heritability Estimates measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a speci c population are due to genetic factors p 82 Kinship Studies compare the characteristics of family members p 82 GeneEnvironment Interaction because of genetic make up individuals differ in their responsiveness to qualities of the environment p 83 NichePicking tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity p 85 Epigensis development resulting from ongoing bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of environment p 86 Methyation biochemical process triggered by certain experiences where a set of chemical compounds lands on top of gene and changes its impact reducing or silencing its expression p 86 Genetic Foundations Genetic Code 0 The proteins our genes make break and reassemble in staggering variety 0 At the microscopic level biological events of profound developmental signi cance are a result of genetic and non genetic forces The Sex Cells Meiosis makes sure a constant quantity of genetic material continues generation to generation Boy or Girl Xchromosome is a large chromosome versus the Ychromosome that is short and carries little genetic makeup Other genes are involved in development as well Multiple Offspring o Fraternal twins are no more alike than siblings o ldentical twinning is more likely due to chance rather than heredity Children of single births often are healthier and develop more rapidly than twinstriplets Patterns of GeneGene Interaction Aside from the XY pair in males all chromosomes come in matching pairs DominantRecessive Pattern Most frequent recessive disorders is PKU o Affects the way the body breaks down proteins contained in many foods 0 With dominantrecessive inheritance as long as we know the parents genetic make up we can predict the percentage of children who will display or carry a trait Some dominant disorders persist 0 Ex Huntington disease Condition where the central nervous system degenerates Incomplete Dominance Pattern In some heterozygous circumstances the dominantrecessive relationship does not hold completely 0 Ex sickle cell trait XLinked Pattern Males and females have an equal chance to inherit recessive disorders carried on autosomes o The Ychromosome and lacks many corresponding alleles to override those on X 0 Ex hemophilia Many sex differences show males to be at a disadvantage 0 Rates of miscarriage Infantchildhood death Birth defects Learning disabilities Behavior disorders 0 Intellectual disabilities 0 Social and cultural factors can substantially modify maleto female ratios either direction and undermine ratios evolutionary role compensation from males greater genetic vulnerability Genomic Imprinting Genomic imprinting can also operate the sex chromosome as Fragile X syndrome most common intellectual disability Mutation Some mutations occur by chance spontaneously others by hazardous environmental agents 0 Germline mutation takes place in the cells that give rise to gametes Somatic mutation when normal body cells mutate Some spontaneous mutations are necessary and desirable Polygenic Inheritance Cutanddry individual differences are easier trace due to being poygenic OOOO Chromosomal Abnormalities Most chromosomal abnormalities occur during meiosis 0 When a chromosome does not separate correctly or part of it breaks off Down Syndrome 21st chromosome pair fails to separate so the individual receives three of those chromosomes instead of two 0 life expectancy has increased to 60 years but more than 12 who live past 40 shows symptoms of Alzheimer s disease 0 Environmental factors affect how well children with Down Syndrome fare Abnormalities of the Sex Chromosomes Disorders of autosomes other than Down Syndrome disrupt development so severely miscarriage happens Brainimaging con rms that addingsubtracting XChromosomes alters development of certain brain structures yielding to particular intellectual de cits Reproductive Choices 0 Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis help people decide about conceiving carrying a pregnancy full term or adopting a child Genetic Counseling 0 People who have trouble bearing a child seek counseling 0 Older paternal age can heighten the risk of DNA mutations 0 After age 40 there is an increased risk of psychological disorders Including autism schizophrenia bipolar disorder 0 Genetic counselor interviews and prepares a pedigree if the family history has intellectual disability psychological disorders physical defects inherited diseases 0 The pedigree is to estimate the likelihood of having an abnormal child Autism schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been linked to genetic markers The genomeWide testing method looks for these genetic markers and can help genetic counselors estimate the risk of these conditions 0 Once all the relevant hereditary information is in genetic counselors help people consider options such as 0 Taking a chance and conceiving 0 Reproductive technologies 0 Adopting Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Medicine Utrafast fetal magnetic resonance imagery is used when an ultrasound suggest problems but diagnosis is uncertain Techniques can cause complications such as premature labor and miscarriage Genetic engineering offer new hope for correcting hereditary defects Adop on Adopted children and adolescents tend to have more learning and emotional difficulties that increase with age of adoption Adoptive parents and children who are genetically unrelated are not alike in intelligence and personality than biological relatives these differences may threaten family harmony By adolescence adoptees lives are complicated by unresolved curiosity about their roots 0 May never know birth parents 0 What would they do if their birth parents suddenly reappeared o The process of de ning themselves as the integrate aspects of birth family and heir adoptive family into their emerging identity Environmental Contexts for Development 0 Just as complex is the surrounding environment as many layered set of in uences that combine to help and hinder physical and psychological wellbeing The Family Direct In uences 0 When children cooperate parents are more likely to be warm and gentle in future versus children whose parents discipline harshly and impatiently are likely to rebel Indirect In uence Children exposed to angry unresolved parental con ict have serious emotional problems 0 InternalZing dif culties Common among girls Feelings of worry fear and trying to repair parents relationship 0 ExternalZing dif culties Among boys Anger and aggression Adapting to Change 0 Parents development affects children 0 Historical time period contributes to family dynamic system 0 Some general family functioning patterns exist 0 US and other industrialized nations consistencies is the socioeconomic status Socioeconomic Status and Family Functioning o SES is linked to timing of parenthood and family size LowerSES parents emphasize external characteristics 0 Obedience o Politeness o Neatnesscleanliness o HigherSES parents emphasize psychological traits o Curiosity 0 Happiness o Selfdirection o CognitiveSocial maturity Af uence Af uent parents prestigioushighpaying jobs fail to engage in family interaction and parenting to promote favorable development Poverty 0 Development is threatened when a family falls into poverty 0 Negative outcomes to singleparent families and families who live in lowincomedangerous neighborhoods 0 Rise in homelessness due to 2 factors 0 Decline in availability of governmentsupported lowcost housing 0 Increase in poverty 0 Many homeless children suffer from developmental delays and chronic emotional stress 0 Some interventions focus on family functioning and parenting skills versus others that target children s academic emotional and social skills Beyond the Family Neighborhood and School 0 Connections between family and community are vital for child wellbeing Neighborhoods 0 Offer resources and social ties playing important roles in children s development 0 Resources have greater impact on economically disadvantaged Bene ts of the provision of social support 0 Parental selfworth 0 Parental access to valuable information and services 0 Childrearing controls and role models 0 Direct assistance with childrearing Schools 0 Regular parentschool contact supports development at all ages students with parents involved in school activities and parent conferences show better academic achievement The Cultural Context Cultural Values and Practices US opinion the care and rearing of young children and paying for that care are duty of the parents 0 The intergenerational shared parenting is consistent with Hispanic cultural ideal of famiism Cultures and subcultures are commonly compared on two broad values 0 Collectivism Emphasize group goals over individual goals and value interdependent qualities 0 Individualism Largely concerned with own personal needs and value independence Public Policies and Child Development 0 Affordable Care Act was signed into law in 2010 which extended governmentsupported health insurance to all children in low income families Looking Toward the Future Justi cation of public policies aimed at fostering children s development 0 Children are the future 0 Children s basic right as human beings Understanding the Relationship Between Heredity and Environment 0 Both heredity and environment are involved in every aspect of development 0 Investigators believe that heredity and environment are inseparable The Question quotHow Muchquot o Heritability estimate is used to infer the role of heredity in complex human characteristics Heritability Differences in genetic makeup explain half the variation in intelligence Heritability research reveals genetic factors are important in personality Limitations of Heritability o The extent at which twin studies re ect genetic and environment variation determines accuracy of heritability estimates Heritability estimates are controversial because they can be misapplied The Question quotHowquot GeneEnvironment Interaction o Geneenvironment interaction can apply to any characteristic Geneenvironment interaction highlights 0 Because of unique genetic makeup we respond differently to the same environment 0 Different geneenvironment combinations can make 2 people look the same GeneEnvironment Correlation Passive and Evocative Correlation 0 Two types of geneenvironment correlation 0 Passive child has no control 0 Evocative evoke responses that in uenced by child s heredity Active Correlation 0 Active geneenvironment correlation children extend experiences beyond immediate family and given freedom to make more choices actively seek environments tting to their genetic tendencies Nichepicking older children and adolescents more in charge of their environments Environmental In uences on Gene Expression Heredity granted priority Geneenvironment interaction affects responsiveness to particular environments Geneenvironment correlation viewed as driven by genetics 0 Parents can uncoupe unfavorable geneenvironment correlations by providing positive experiences that modify expression of heredity leading to favorable outcomes Bidirectional genes that affect children s behavior and experiences but experiences and behavior can affect gene expression 0 Stimulation internaor external modify gene activity