Chapter 11 Reading Notes
Chapter 11 Reading Notes HD 202
Popular in Middle childhood through Adolescence
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Popular in Human Development
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Coster on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 202 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Amy Cole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Middle childhood through Adolescence in Human Development at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Chapter 11 Physical Development in Middle Childhood Vocabulary Secular trends in physical growth changes in body size from one generation to the next p 406 Malocclusion condition in which the upper and lower teeth do NOT meet properly p 407 Obesity greater than 20 increase over healthy weight based on BMI BMI above 95th percentile is obese p 410 Nocturnal enuresis bedwetting during the night p 415 RoughandTumble play friendly chasing and play ghting p 424 Dominance Hierarchy stable ordering of group members that predicts who will win when con ict arises p 424 Body Growth Worldwide A 9 gap exists between the largest and smallest 8 year olds worldwide 0 Growth norms must be applied cautiously Secular Trends in Physical Growth 0 Last 150 years secular trends in physical growth have occurred in industrialized nations Secular gains appear early in life increase over childhood and adolescence declines as mature body size is reached 0 Improved health and nutrition are responsible Skeletal Growth 0 In middle childhood the bones lengthen and broaden Ligaments are not rmly attached to the bones 0 With increasing muscle strength and ligaments not yet attached children are unusually exible 0 Between 612 years old all 20 primary teeth are lost and replaced with permanent ones 0 Care of teeth is essential because dental health affects child s appearance speech and ability to chew properly Malocclusion occurs in 13 of schoolage children Brain Development 0 Weight of the brain increases 10 in middle childhood and adolescence Using fMRl researchers can detect the volume of 2 types of brain tissue 0 White matter consisting of myelinated nerve bers Rises steadily through childhood and adolescence ln prefrontal cortex parietal lobes corpus callosum 0 Grey matter consisting of neurons and supportive material Peaks in middle childhood and declines as synaptic pruning and death surrounding neurons proceed Pruning and reorganization and selection of brain circuits lead to optimized functioning of speci c brain regions and more effective information processing Overtime neurons become selective responding to certain chemical messages 0 Brain functioning may change in middle childhood because of hormones 0 Around 78 years old an increase in androgens occurs in children of both sexes Androgens are male sex hormones and secreted by the adrenal glands Androgens affect brain organization and behavior Common Health Problems 0 Children from economically advantaged homes are at their healthiest in middle childhood 0 Growth in lung size permits more air exchange with each breath 0 Cumulative effectiveness of good nutrition with rapid development of body s immune system offer greater protection agains disease 0 Increased immunity may allow children a learning advantage because they miss fewer days of school 0 Poverty is a powerful predictor of poor health during middle cthhood Nutrition 0 Eating in the evening with parents leads to better balanced diets A diet high in sugar fat and processed foods leads t slightly lower IQ levels 0 Food familiarity and food preference are strongly links Deficient diet alters production of neurotransmitters in brain 0 Affectsdisrupts all aspects of psychological functioning Overweight and Obesity 0 Rise in overweight and obesity in Western Nations in past decades 0 Overweight rises with age Obese children at risk for lifelong health problems 0 Symptoms appearing in early school years High blood pressure High cholesterol Respiratory abnormalities Insulin resistance In ammatory reactions Causes of Obesity Heredity accounts for a tendency of weight gain 0 Importance of environment is evident with consistent relationship of lowSES to overweight and obesity in industrialized nations 0 Factors playing into obesity 0 Lack of knowledge of healthy diet 0 Tendency to buy highfat lowcost foods 0 Neighborhoods lack affordable healthy foods in convenient grocery stores and restaurants 0 Family stress leads to overeating 0 Children who are undernourished in early years are at risk for excessive weight gain late on Malnourished bodies protect themselves by establishing a low basal metabolism rate that may endure after nutrition improves Demanding work schedules reduces parents time to have healthy meal prep 0 Interventions are best when parents and children s weight problems aren t severe 0 One successful technique is to reinforce obese children for spending less time inactive Children consume 13 of daily energy intake at school Obesity prevention and reduction becoming US priority 0 Let s Move campaign by Michelle Obama aims to create partnerships between communities to solve the childhood obesity problem it s goals are Increased public education about healthy eating and physical activity Greater access to affordable healthy foods in low income neighborhoods Laws mandating improved food labels and menus specifying nutritional content and calories Expanded opportunities for physical activity in schools and communities Vision and Hearing 0 Myopia most common vision problem in middle childhood Heredity plays a role 0 ldentical twins more likely to share condition 0 Fraternal twins less likely to share condition 0 More time children spend on close work higher chance to be myopic Myopia can be corrected with corrective lenses ie glasses contacts 0 Otitis media middle ear infection 0 Common in infancy and early childhood 0 Becomes less frequent with age Bedwetting Heredity is a major factor Enuresis is caused by failure of muscular responses that stop urination or by hormonal imbalance that permits too much urine too accumulate during the night Punishing a schoolaged child for wetting is only going ot make matters worse 0 Treatment of enuresis o Prescription of synthetic hormone desmopressin Desmopressin reduces amount of urine produced 0 Urine alarm Wakes child at rst sign of dampness Few children who do relapse will achieve dryness after doing alarm a second time lHness Asthma accounts for 13 of childhood chronic and childhood hospitalization o 2 of US children have more severe chronic illness sickle cell anemia cystic brosis diabetes arthritis cancer 0 AIDS 0 Interventions to help families cope effectively 0 Health education 0 Home visits by health care professionals OOOOO 0 School accommodation 0 DiseaseSpeci c summer camps 0 Parent and peer support groups Unintential Injuries Injury fatalities increase in middle childhood to adolescence 0 Boys rates rising above girls 0 Motor vehicle accidents remain leading cause 0 Vital safety measure legally requiring children to wear helmets 0 Motor vehicle and bicycle injuries declined by 36 0 Highest risk takers are children whose parents don t act as safe conscious models Health Education 0 Children in middle childhood can comprehend a range of health information 0 Reason of the underlie in the knowledge gap 0 Health is not an important goal for children 0 Children do not have adultlike time perspective 0 Health information given to children is contradicted by other sources 0 Parents and teachers must coach children for good health and model and reinforce Motor Development and Play Gains in body size and muscle strength support motor coordination in middle childhood GrossMotor Development Gains in 4 basic motor capacities o Flexibility 0 Balance 0 Agility 0 Force 0 10 year olds react 2x as fast as 5 year olds FineMotor Development Improves over school years Gains in ne motor skills evident o In middle childhood children s drawings gain organization detail representation of depth Individual Differences in Motor Skills Schoolaged children show individual differences in motor capacities in uenced by heredity and environment 0 Family income affects children s access to lessons needed to develop abilities LowSES communities provide many provisions for children this combined with encouragement from parents many children become highly skilled Sex differences in motor skills 0 Girls Fine motor handwriting and drawing Grossmotor balance and agility 0 Boys Outperform girls on all other levels 0 Middle childhood is crucial time to encourage girls to participate in sports 0 During middle childhood children are discovering what they like and are good at Games with Rules 0 Gains in perspective taking permit transition to ruleoriented games 0 Play experiences contribute to emotional and social development AdultOrganized Youth Sports 0 12 US children participate in organized sports outside of school at some point Critics 0 Youth sports overemphasize competition and substitute adult control for children s natural experimentation with rules and strategies 0 Valid 0 Parents in uence children s athletic attitudes and abilities High parental pressure sets stage for emotional difficulties and athletic dropout Overuse injuries are common with highly competitive teams with year round training Shadows of Evolutionary Past 0 Children s roughandtumble play resembles social behavior of other young mammals 0 Boys Playful wrestling and hitting 0 Girls Chasing When children reach puberty roughandtumble play declines Physical Education 0 Physical activity bene ts 0 Health 0 Sense of selfworth 0 Cognitive and social skills 0 Physically t children take pleasure in their developing motor skills
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