Chapters 2, 3, and 4
Chapters 2, 3, and 4 FAD 2230
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Harrison Harward on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FAD 2230 at Florida State University taught by Sung Cho in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Family Relationships in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
FAD 11/26/16 Chapter 2 Social Class How does social class affect our family and close relationships? o Health , overall life expectancy “In 2012, babies in the city’s poorest section were more than 10 times as likely to die in their first year of life as babies in the city’s wealthiest section” o Gender expectation More egalitarian roles among vs. more polarized gender rolls among o Values our parents socialize in us Working class vs middle upper class o Higher education (college) o Dating/Premarital sexual expectations and behavior Teen/non marital pregnancy among poorer households o Likelihood of marriage and age at first marriage o Types of stress and coping mechanisms Poverty Poverty Guidelines Is this realistic? Path ways from poverty to adverse child outcomes Health and nutrition Fewer resources for learning Quality of the home Housing problems environment Poor quality of neighborhood Parental stress and mental health These things can lead to malnutrition, violence, crime, drug use, etc Social mobility and the lack of it Social mobility – movement from one social class to another Intergenerational transmission of poverty Poverty Why does poverty persist? Do your reasons tend to focus more on micro or macro explanations? What kinds of programs do you think are really needed to end poverty? What are you doing today to ensure that you are not poor in the future? Do you feel that you can avoid poverty? Chapter 3 Social Exchange Theory Social exchange theory Based upon the philosophical perspective of utilitarianism o Individuals rationally weight the rewards and costs of their behavioral choices In exchange theory, humans are motivated out of self-interest. o Motivation is what induces a person to act The existence/endurance of social groups is explained by the self-interest of individual members. Theory assumptions Level of analysis is individual. (The individual is real) Prediction and understanding come about by understanding the individual’s motivation. o Based upon individuals rational choices not outside forces Individuals are motivated by self interest o Ex: friends, no good deed is done without self-serving agenda Individuals are rational o Being rational = can calculate costs and rewards Social life requires reciprocity The more of something one has, the less additional units of it are worth All behavior involves cost. Therefore, it anticipates achieving rewards or reducing other costs o Quid pro quo Individuals are capable of long-term continuing investments with no immediate returns if the expectations of achieving more favorable outcomes eventually materialize Reward: o anything perceived a benefit to an individual’s interests o Satisfaction or gratification is received from participating in an interaction Cost: o anything perceived as non-beneficial to an individual’s interests, or o Anything missed or forgone rewards or opportunities that are associated with a specific choice o Creates a lack of satisfaction in a relationship Profit: o A ratio of rewards to costs for any decisions Not all costs and rewards are weighted the same PROFIT – Rewards outweigh the costs (Profits = Rewards > costs) LOSS – Costs outweigh the rewards (Loss = rewards < costs) The equation: REWARDS = COSTS – OUTCOME Comparison levels In complex situations, the _ of profit available can be divided into two comparison levels o Comparison level (CL) of what others in your position have and how well you are doing relative to them. o Comparison Level (CL+) how well you are doing relative to others outside of your position but in positions that supply and alternative or choice. Key Concepts Reciprocity: o A mutual giving and receiving involving the equalization of exchanges between 2 individuals. What is exchanged does not have to be returned in kind…either in present or future Exchange and Equity: o Social interdependencies; maximizing profit entails exchanges with others. o A rational person is willing to incur some losses to maintain profitable relationship (e.g. marriage, children) o Equity – the perceived sense of fairness and justice of the exchange. (E.g. mothers) Human Capital – knowledge, skills, and techniques acquired by an individual that give them the opportunity to make choices Social Capital – the network of relationships around you Principles Principle of least interest o The individual with the least interest in the relationship/exchange has the most power Principles of resources and power o The individuals with the most resources in the relationship/exchange has the most power Economics – the language of love When you say “I love you,” you are speaking in economic terms When we are in love, we are continuously making cost/reward analyses, with help us to decide whether or not to maintain the relationship Chapter 4 Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interaction Theory is focused on the meaning people make of events and situations The theory assumes that we cannot understand an individual’s behaviors unless we know the meaning the situation and the stimulus had for the individual The primary focus is on the acquisition and generation of meaning o Signs, symbols, words, language o Humans are motivated to create meanings to help them make sense of their world Theory assumptions Human behavior must be understood by the meaning of the individuals o The explanation of human behavior is impossible without knowing the meaning such behavior holds for the actor Individuals define the meaning of context and situation o What human defines as real has real consequences o How we define the situation in which we find ourselves explains that problems we define and what actions and solutions we undertake Individuals have “minds” that perceive, reason, sense, and imagine o Acquires, integrates, and processes information o Is capable of reflecting on its own processes so that the individual can develop a self as both actor(I) and object(me): Mead Society precedes the individual o Individuals minds are results of the society and not vice versa Theory concepts The self is made up of the “I” (how I see myself) and “me” (how others might see me). o We commonly call this our identity Socialization is the process by which we acquire the symbols, beliefs, and attitudes of our culture o Mead believed this took place in two stages: Play: the child plays at being something, police, mother, etc Game: incorporating one’s self into an organized activity through the generalized other (the group/society). Role o The place of an individual, that he/she take within a situation, group, or in society o To participate in a role means it is expected that one must follow the rules of that role o Roles should be clear Identity o Formed upon the multiple roles an individual plays o Society provides the social roles and meanings of those roles, and the individual organizes them into a hierarchy in each situation Theory Propositions The quality of an individual’s role enactment in a relationship positively affects individual’s satisfaction with the relationship The greater the perceived clarity of role expectations, the higher the quality of role enactment The more individuals perceive consensus in the expectations about a role they occupy, the less their role strain.
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