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Criminal Investigation Chapters 1-7

by: Erika Briggs

Criminal Investigation Chapters 1-7 CRIM435

Marketplace > Indiana State University > CRIM435 > Criminal Investigation Chapters 1 7
Erika Briggs
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Criminal Investigation
Christian Gallagher
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Briggs on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRIM435 at Indiana State University taught by Christian Gallagher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Criminal Investigation Part 1 Overview of Criminal Investigation Chapter 1: Methods of Investigation 1. Nature of Investigation 3 I’s Information, Interrogation, and Instrumentation Corpus Delicti- evidence that a crime was commited Finding the perpetrators is the simplest phase of investigation 2. Information Most important Can identify perpetrators, possibly motive is revealed, then guides rest of investigation 3. Interrogation Investigators often overlook the simple task of asking the suspect if they committed the crime Many people still talk after given their rights because they have an irresistible desire to talk when their character is being questioned 4. Instrumentation Science and computer analysis to detect crime Crime shows like CSI foster views that expenses are not an issue and every test can be ran Jurors become suspicious when cases lack scientific analysis like their favorite shows 5. Ethics of Investigation Investigator must maintain the values of justice Bending and breaking rules is a misguided strategy 6. Phases of the Investigation 3 phases Identifying perpetrators, tracking and locating them, developing facts to prove guilt in court 7. Identifying the Criminal a. Confession b. Eyewitness c. Criminal evidence – motive and opportunity d. Associative Evidence- weapon, hair, DNA left at crime scene 8. Tracking and Locating the Criminal 9. Proving Guilty Most difficult phase Final test of investigation is presenting in court 10.Elements of Offense Corpus Delicti must 1 be proven Identify perpetrator a. Intent The accused knew they were doing something wrong Some crimes require proof of intent to do injury to someone else 11.Role of Reason How crime was committed Inductive reasoning- using specific observations to generalize an explanation of events (broken window or door) Deductive reasoning- investigators begin with general theory, apply it, and determine if crime can be explained by theory 12.Representative Approach There is not one method of approach. Many hypotheses are needed to solve a crime 13.Chance 14.Intuition Chapter 2: The Investigator’s Report 1. The Investigator’s Notebook a. Repository details - Storing of information by recording or note taking b. Basis of the Report- report is drafted from notebook c. Supplement Sketches and Photographs d. Documentary Evidence- evidence must be legible and cane be used to refresh memories 2. Materials Ink and bound notebook should be used to remain permanent One notebook per case 3. Recording Notes Notes are gathering and recorded in chronological order Report Writing 4. Importance Effectiveness and quality of report are of high importance Crimes can be linked by investigative reports If bad reporting, can be scrutinized later 5. Purpose of Investigative Report An official business record pertaining to an investigation 6. Nature of Report Objective statement of investigator’s report Cases can take months to go to correct. Reports should be well written to avoid poor grammar, improperly used words, and misspellings that can discredit the investigator. 7. Qualities Accurate, Clear, Brief a. Accuracy b. Completeness c. Clarity 8. Sequence of Reports Activities not documented are assumed not to have been done Report should include negative and positive findings to remove unwarranted and misleading suspicion Timely manner 9. Parts of a Report a. Administrative data b. Synopsis c. Details of report d. Conclusions and recommendations e. Undeveloped leads f. Enclosures g. Style 10.Initial Report Sets forth basis of investigation 11.Progress or Supplemental Report 12.Closing Reports 13.Miscellaneous a. Informants- symbol should be used (I-2) to avoid disclosing the identity b. Minors- document consent of parents c. Statements- include time and place taken d. Records- business records, phone logs, tax statements with dates and content e. Events witnessed by investigators- f. Descriptions of persons and property Chapter 3: Crime Scene Procedures Crime Scene Search 1. Overview 2. Preliminary – secure the area 3. Assignment of Duties The officer in charge directs and coordinates, assigns duties, and assumes responsibility of the investigation. Photographer- photographs scene Sketcher- prepares a rough draft at the scene and later finishes it Master note taker (scribe) - chronicles the scene investigation by using descriptions given by others, notes the time and person when evidence is discovered, and maintains an orderly log of proceedings Evidence collector- collects, preserves, and tags articles of evidence Measurer- makes overall measurements of the scene and location of each article of evidence 4. The Survey- notice the surroundings before starting investigation 5. The Search – establish search plan 6. The Mechanics of the Search a. Strip Method b. Spiral Method c. Zone Method d. Wheel Method 7. Precautions 8. Evaluations a. Physical Reconstruction b. Mental Reconstruction 9. Equipment Crime Scene Sketch 10.General a. Rough sketch b. Finished drawing c. Materials 11.Elements of Sketching a. Measurements b. Compass direction c. Essential Items d. Scale or Proportion e. Legend f. Title 12.Cross-Projection Sketch 13.Measuring methods 14.Computer Method Photographing the Crime Scene 15.Use of Photography Photo graphs are used to convey relevant events and provide visual communication 16.Purpose of Crime Scene Photos a. Provide Permanent Record b. Understand Crime Scene c. Investigative purpose 17.Evidence Rules Relating to Photographs 18.Photographing the crime scene 19.Selection of Point of View 20.Digital Video 21.“Posed” Photographs and Markers Chapter 4 Fingerprints 1. Introduction 2. The Nature of a Fingerprint No two fingerprints are alike. 3. Sole Prints Palm and sole prints are unique like fingerprints. 4. Deceased Persons a. Recently dead- if it is 10 hours or less prints can be used by scanning or using spoon method b. Advanced Decomposition- remaining fragments from outer layer can be should be removed and used to create prints c. Desiccation and Charring- must soften skin then try to fill out d. Drowned Persons- remove skin e. Dusting-Tape Method- used for extremely fine or worn ridges Latent Fingerprints 5. General 6. Searching for Fingerprints 7. Locating Prints Locate prints before beginning any process 8. Developing the Print 9. Photography Latent fingerprints should be photographed after being developed and before any other measures are taken to preserve them 10.Handing and Transporting Gloves should be worn and articles should be touched only where there is little likelihood of disturbing a latent fingerprint. Never wrap an object in a handkerchief or a towel. If possible, a fingerprint should be left on the surface it was found. 11.Elimination process Eliminate prints of people who have legitimate access to the scene (Members of household, police officers, employees of a business, emergency responders) 12.Lifting Process of physically removing latent fingerprints from their original surface Most prints are lifted by using transparent tape 13.Palm Prints 14.Poroscopy – not of scientific acceptance 15.Earprints- not promising for conviction Classification of Fingerprints 16.Intro 17.Ridge Characteristics Basic elements of classification 18.Basic Features and Terminology 19.Pattern Types Arches, loops, and whorls 20.Henry Classification 21.NCIC Fingerprint Classification System (NCIC FPC) National Crime Information Center (NCIC) contains wanted persons files NCIC FPC aids in matching prints but does not give a positive match 22.Automated Fingerprint Identification First used to find a serial killer who had killed 15 women in Los Angeles Chapter 5 1. Over view  No two physical objects are alike in all details  Individual characteristics serve to identify the specific object that caused the impressions 2. Casting - Method of recording impression evidence by reproducing its 3 dimensional form - Photographs provide overall more detail but casting provides 3 dimensional detail 3. Foot impressions Angle of walk, length of step or any small distinctive characteristics may aid in investigation a. Surface prints  Made when material is transferred from the foot or shoe to the walking surface  Layer of dust, liquid, mud, or perspiration  Most common  If print is found in dust, lifted using an electrostatic lifting device b. Sole prints (bare feet) Photographed and then developed at latent print Compared like fingerprints 4. Casting footwear impressions - Dental stone most widely used for casting a. Preparation - Many photographs - Large particles are removed to prevent obscuring - Estimate material required for cast b. Making the cast -pour mixture into the impression - Depth of 1 half inch is good for dental stone and set for 30 minutes - Date, case number, and initials of investigator - Once completely dried it can be removed, washed, and lightly brushed - cleaning can damage cast therefore not normally done 5. Tire Impressions - Can be made simply by turns too sharp or driving over soft surfaces A. Direction of Travel B. Measurements and Recording C. Tire Tread File 6. Tool Marks - Tools that were used may leave identifiable markings - How firearms can be matched from gun to bullet Modus Operandi- usual way that a particular criminal performs a crime a. Types of Tool Marks b. Handling of Tool evidence - Tool impressions are mostly likely found on entry, rifled drawers, or strongboxes - Should be documented, sketched, and photographed - Never attempt to fit a tool into an impression bc this could damage the impression c. Photographing tool marks d. Casting tool marks - Use silicone rubber, dental impression cream, moulage, modeling clay, or thermosetting plastics - Dental stone and plaster-of-Paris will not capture details 7. Number Restoring by Chemical Etching Manufacturers use serial numbers to record quantity, quality, and location. These numbers can sometimes be restored through chemical etching. a. Theory of Etching - If the serial number has been filed away, it can be restored with a dilute acid b. Technique Steps on redeveloping serial numbers Photograph the object and area where numbers should appear Clean the surface with a clean solvent Polish the surface with an emery cloth and apply solution Photograph numbers when they appear 8. Bite Marks Teeth differ naturally in size, shape, spacing, and direction of growth. Forensic odontologist- a dentist trained in the recovery and analysis of dental evidence A. Bite Marks on Food - Due to perishable nature, photos should be taken ASAP B. Bite Marks on Skin Occurrence, Photography, Swabbing, Casting and Analysis Broken Glass 9. Overview 10. Types of Glass 11. Determining the Direction of Impact - Glass around window frames will indicate from which side the breaking force was applied - Glass found on one side of a door or window does not necessarily mean the force came from the opposite side a. Fracture Patterns Radial Fractures- spoke-like cracks emanating from the area of impact Concentric Fractures- secondary cracks on the side of impact b. Reassembling the Glass 12. Determining the Direction of Impact - Radical fractures occur first on the side opposite the impact - Concentric fractures occur on the side the force was applied A. Exceptions to this Procedure B. Hackle Marks 13. Bullet Holes in Glass a. Determining the Angle of the Gunfire b. Whist Bullet Hole was Made First -1 bullet hole will have radical cracks that are complete and uninterrupted c. Determining the Type of Weapon or Ammunition 14.Fracture Matches - Determine all same type of glass - Carefully joined together to find proper fit 15.Glass Physical Properties Refractive index- measurement of the bending of light as it passes through a substance 16.Collection of Glass Evidence - If trying to determine direction of force, all glass from pane should be collected. - Other purposes small portions can be taken - Photograph, sketch, and describe placement before moving glass - Look for fingerprints, blood, hair, fivers, and other debris - Extreme care not to smudge or disturb evidence - Glass from different locations is placed in different containers - Mark containers Fragile Miscellaneous Trace Evidence 17. Hair Cuticle- outer covering Medulla- innermost layer Cortex- middle layer that contains pigment cells Anagen, Catagen, and Telogen Phase - Hair can reveal race of an individual, area of body it came from, manner removed, drugs, dyed - If hair follicle remains attached to the hair shaft, DNA analysis is appropriate 18. Fibers (most common forms of trace evidence) 19. Paint - Generally associated with hit and runs 20. Soil Firearms 21.Overview 22.National Integrated Ballistic Information Network -deploys equipment to federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies for imaging and comparing bullets and cartridge cases maintained by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosive 23.Investigative Problems 24.Describing the Firearm - Minimum should include caliber, make, model, type, serial number, and finish 25.Fire Arms Identification a. Bullets b. Cartridge Casings 26.Powders 27.Gunshot Primer Residue Test  When a gun is fired, invisible primer residues are dispersed throughout the area within 10 feet of discharge.  If found on a person, this means they were at the scene but did not necessarily shoot the gun  A firearm may not leave significant residue on hands, can be rubbed off or washed off 28.Powder Residue 29.Trace Metal Detection Technique -means for determining whether a person’s hand or clothing has recently been in contact with a metal object such as a tool or weapon 30. Fingerprints on Firearm -difficult to obtain fingerprints from firearms Chapter 6 Care of Evidence 1. Overview Corpus delicti- consists of objects or substances that tend to establish a crime has been committed Associative evidence- links suspect to crime scene or to the offense Identifying evidence- associative evidence that establishes the identity of the perpetrator Tracking evidence- assists the investigator in locating the suspect 2. Evaluation of Physical Evidence - Before an object can become evidence it must be significant 3. Procedure Only evidence that followed a correct chain of custody and was processed correctly can be presented in court 4. Chain of Custody - Number of people who handle evidence should be kept to a minimum - There is no excuse for not properly documenting the care and custody of evidence. 5. Protection a. Protecting the Evidence Extra precautions need to be taken for all evidence b. Transporting c. Standards of Comparison d. Containers and Packaging e. Storage containers 6. Preservation 7. Preservatives - Some evidence needs special preservatives but should never be used without consulting an expert first 8. Collection a. Adequate sampling – collect a generous sample when possible b. Standard or known Samples c. Integrity of Sample Contamination occurs when - Poorly packaged - Use tool to see if it matches an impression d. Types of Evidence (Fingerprints, Firearms, Hairs, Dirt, Bullets, Clothing, Blood, Saliva, DNA, Paint, Glass, Electronic devices 9. Identification -investigator’s notebook should contain description of object, position found, place collected, person received from, names of witnesses, serial numbers a. Marking b. Sealing c. Labeling Page 144- FBI Recommendation for Evidence Collection 10.Transmission - Letter should accompany evidence being transferred with the type of examination needed and describing facts of the case Obtaining Information Observation and Identification Observation 1. Overview 2. The Senses in Observation - Our senses are used to understand the events of our daily lives - Touch, smell, and taste are mostly unreliable 3. Psychological Elements - Intelligence affects our capacity to understand and interpret - Experience and Occupation structure his or her frame of reference - Times of stress or danger, people tend to overestimate time Physical Descriptions 4. Describing People 5. General Information Portrait parle- verbal description and used as a reliable aid Identifiers of people page 152 Figure 7-1 6. Voice Identification - Voices are distinctive due to pitch, intensity, and quality 7. Lost or Stolen Property - Many thieves dispose of stolen property by selling to pawnbrokers, secondhand dealers, innocent friends or strangers a. Description of Property – much detail as possible (physical appearance, material, brand name, identifying marks) b. Personal Marking- name or date engraved Identification by Witnesses 8. Difficulties - Witnesses are not normally prepared to remember information or facts 9. Identifying Wanted Criminals 10.Identifying Methods a. Computer Assisted Identification - Computer systems store thousands of different facial features that can be used to form different faces 11.Identification of Suspect a. Lineups – identification procedure where the suspect is presented with a number of similar-looking persons to determine if witnesses can identify the perpetrator b. Showups- the showing of a single suspect to a witness for the purpose of identification c. Photographic lineup- a process where witnesses try to identify suspects from a series of photographs 12.Self-incrimination - Fifth Amendment guarantees no person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself


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