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Sociology Chp 1-3 Lecture Notes

by: himechan15

Sociology Chp 1-3 Lecture Notes Sociology 205

Marketplace > Texas A&M University > Sociology > Sociology 205 > Sociology Chp 1 3 Lecture Notes
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Intro to Sociology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by himechan15 on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 205 at Texas A&M University taught by Ochoa in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 01/26/16
Thursday, January 28, 2016 Sociology Lecture 1 • Sociology - the systematic study of human society • Society - a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominate cultural expectations • Sociological imagination - the ability to see the relationships between personal experiences and the larger society. Connect personal troubles and public issues • Global sociological imagination- allows us to the see the rapidly changing world (high, mid, and low income), all nations are connected and dependent to each other • Social problems rise when society changes. Started in the industrial revolution. (ex: children employed in factories) • Industrialization - the process where societies are transformed from a dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries • Urbanization - increasing population living in cities • Auguste Comte - coined the term sociology, founder of sociology, created Positivism (the belief that the world can be best understood through scientific inquiry) (methodological and social/political) • Harriet Martineau - translated Comte’s work into English, wrote Society in America, advocated for racial and gender equality. Unlike Alexis de Tocqueville who justified slavery, Harriet believed it was unjust. • Herbert Spencer- Social Darwinism (belief that animals best adapted to their environment survive and prosper), controversial bc saying some people just aren't meant to survive. Problematic bc it justifies slavery and social inequality for gender, race, and class. He is not taking the conditions of your birth into consideration. • Emile Durkheim- wrote The Rules of Sociological Methods, believed Social Facts (patterned ways of thinking, acting, and feeling that exist outside any one individual, and exerts social control over everyone), Examples: suicide rates in Catholics. Need for moral authority, collective consciousness (the characteristics of a group/society rising above a mental and emotional response that results in a unified wold view, a moral code). Helps contain and shape behavior. • Believes there are 2 types of society, 1) mechanical solidarity - individuals all share the same social knowledge, 2) organic solidarity - modern society problem of moral 1 Thursday, January 28, 2016 relationship is due to individualism, social division of labor, decline of collective consciousness. The division of labor creates a hierarchy. 3) is a condone in which social control becomes inefficient as a result of the loss of shared values and…. • Karl Marx- stressed class conflict, specifically the exploitation of the working class. Bourgeoisie vs the proletariat, proletariat sell the their labor bc they have no other means, they experienced alienation (powerless and unable to recognize their position in society. Believed society should be changed (economics was the central force for change). Left out women and people of color. Noted class conflict was most common in industrialized society. Max Weber - disagreed with Marx that the economy was the problem, instead • believed the bureaucratic system was the problem. Emphasized that sociology should be value free (as objective as possible). believed the bureaucracy was creating specialized labor that destroyed human freedom. More aware of women issues. • Georg Simmel- focused on society as a web of patterns, considered group size in social interactions (Dyads and triads) • Jane Addams - founded the Hull House (settlement house in Chicago), won a noble peace prize for her work with the underprivileged. Engaged in the American Sociological Association discussions but not allowed to be a member. Author of many books. • W.E.B. Du Bois - created laboratory of sociology, instituted systematic research, found 2 journals, and had many publications. “the Philadelphia negro: a social study”, first to recognize dual heritage as conflict for people of color: double consciousness. • • Theory- a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe explain and predict social events. • Functionalist- macro level, based on the assumption that society is stable and a orderly system. Societal consensus - the majority of members share a common set of values, beliefs and behavioral expectations. Manifest functions - are intended and overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit (ex: edu- passing knowledge to future generations, malls - go shopping). Latent Functions - are unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants (ex: edu- establishing a network and connections, malls- hanging out with friends) 2 Thursday, January 28, 2016 • Conflict- groups are engaged in a continued power struggle for control over scarce resources, can take the form of politics,, litigation, negotiations, and family discussions etc. Power elite = white racial frame, rich/men. • Feminist Approach - examines the patriarchal and the values created Symbolic interactionist - argue that society is the sum of the interactions of • individuals and groups, Interaction - immediate reciprocally oriented. Symbol: any meaningful thing that represents something else. Subjective reality : each persons interpretations of a situation is different. • Postmodern - argues the theories are unsuccessful, and the production of goods to consumerism have led to social control. • Research = a process of systematically collecting information for the purpose of testing on existing theory of generations a new one • Quantitative research - focuses on scientific objectivity and on data that can be measured • Qualitative research - focuses on interpretations to analyze underlying meaning and patterns of social behavior • Deductive science starts as a theory then a hypothesis then observations, then generalizations. (classic) • Inductive (inclusive). • Research methods are specific strategies or techniques for systematically conducting research. • Survey a poll in which the researchers gather faces or attempt to determine the relationships among facts (questionnaires and interviews). • Find research is the study of social life in its natural setting. • Secondary analysis- use existing material and analyze the data that were regional collected by others. • Ethical issues in sociological research - maintain objectivity and integrity by disclosing all findings. Safeguard participants right to privacy and dignity wile protecting form harm. protect confidentiality • • acknowledge research collaboration and disclose financial support 3 Thursday, January 28, 2016 Sociology Lecture 2 • Culture: the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person form one generation to the next. Society and culture are interdependent, nature vs nurture, culture for humans os similar to what instincts are or animals, it helps us deal with everyday life. • Reflexes and drives are what humans have regardless of culture • Material culture: consists of the physical or tangible creations that members of a society make, use, and share (ex: books, computers, guns etc) • Non-material culture: consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence peoples behavior (ex: language, beliefs, values, family patters, politics etc). • Cultural universals- are customs and practices that occur across all societies but they appear in different forms, appearance - bodily adornments and hairstyles, activities- ports, dancing, visiting, games, joking, social institutions- family, law and religion, customary practices- cooking, hospitality. • Cultures have 4 common non-material component: • 1) Symbols- are anything that meaningfully represents something else (ex: flags, hearts, gestures etc) • 2) Languages: set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another, including verbal and non-verbal. • 3) Values: collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture (ex: some core american values: individualism, achievement and success, equality, equal opportunity vs. equal opportunity of outcome (the goal should be equal opportunity of outcome, everyone has the opportunity to do things but they are not as equally prepared (difference in educations etc.), freedom and liberty- the freedom of basic rights, ethnocentrism and group superiority - can lead to discrimination. • Sapir- Whorf hypotheses- suggests that language shapes the view of reality and its speakers, languages precede thought. (Babies learn their reality without language) • 4) Norms: established rules or behavior or standards of conduct, formal norms: written down and involve punishment (ex: laws), informal norms: unwritten standards of behavior understood by people who share a common identity (ex: 4 Thursday, January 28, 2016 manners). Sanctions: rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior. • Folkways: are informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture (ex: using deodorant) Mores: are strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be • violated without serious consequences in a particular culture. Taboo is a more that is extremely offensive (ex: incest, polygamy)
 Laws: are formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions. Criminal (jail time) vs Civil (fines) law. • Technology: refers to the knowledge, techniques and tools that allow people to transform resources into usable forms, and the knowledge and skills required to sue them after they are developed. • Cultural lag: is the gap between the technical developments of a society and its moral and legal institutions (ex:cyber bullying- law hasn't caught up, seatbelt before they became law) • Cultural diversity: refers to the wide rang of cultural differences between and within nations (homogeneous nations vs heterogeneous nations) • Subculture: a category of people who share distinguishing attributes, beliefs, values, and or norms that set them apart in some significant manner from the dominant culture (ex: can be based on religion, gender, or even being fans of a particular artist) • Counterculture: are groups that strongly reject dominate societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles (ex: vegans, hipsters) • Culture shock: the disorientation that peoplef eel when they encounter cultures radically different form thrown and believe they cannot depend on their own taken- for- granted assumptions about life. Culture shock can happen from the same country. • Ethnocentrism: is the practice of judging all other cultures by one’s own culture, can lead to genocide. • Cultural relativism: the belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the cultures’s own standards, scared animals vs food to eat, downside is that it can be used to excuse human rights violations such as child marriage 5 Thursday, January 28, 2016 • High culture: cons sots of classical music, opera, ballet, live theater, and other activities usually patronized by elite audiences. • Popular culture: consists of activities, products and service that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working class. • cultural imperialism: the extensive infusion of one nations culture into other nations (ex: language) aka mcdonalization. • Functionalist: see popular culture as seeing a significant function in society, culture is the “glue” that holds society together. • Conflict theorists see values and norms as helping to create and sustain the privileged positions of the powerful in society, keeping the system of inequalities in place (both macro and micro) • Symbolic interactionists argue that people create, maintain, and change culture as they go about their daily lives (micro) • Postmodernist: belief that we should discuss cultures rather than a single culture. • Gender and language: policeman, chairman, waitress. • Race, ethnicity, and language: savage, primitive, derogatory. Chapter 3: Socialization • Socialization: is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self identify and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society. • Sociobiology: the systematic study of “social behavior from a biological perspective”. • Social isolation: Anna - kept in an attic, no interaction other than food. Genie- strapped to a potty chair from 20 months old to 13 years old, and was beaten when she cried, and was unable to speak. • First 12 months to 3 years are crucial to learn language. 6 Thursday, January 28, 2016 • Harlow’s monkey experiment: wire monkey (food) and a fake terry cloth monkey (comfort), goal to see which monkey the baby was attracted to the most. The baby was attracted to the terry cloth monkey more, shows the importance to feel nurture. • Freud and the psychoanalytic perspective: the id is the component of personality that includes all of the individuals basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification (ex: a baby). The ego is the rational and reality oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions of the innate pleasure seeking drives of id (ex: your own though process). The superego consists of the moral and ethical aspects of personality (ex: parental controls and societal expectations) Piaget and Cognitive Development: • • 1) Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 yrs): Children understand the wold through contact. Object permanence develops towards the end. • 2) Pre operational stage (2-7 yrs): Word usage develops, but don’t understand the different properties in shape or appearance. 3) Concrete operational stage (7-11 yrs): Children like to think in terms of tangible • objects and take the role of the other. • 4)Formal operational stage: (12-teen): engage in abstract thought and futuristic thinking. 7


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