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Week 1 Notes and Chapter Summaries for 2 and 3

by: Megan Spees

Week 1 Notes and Chapter Summaries for 2 and 3 BIO 165-02

Marketplace > University of Indianapolis > Biology > BIO 165-02 > Week 1 Notes and Chapter Summaries for 2 and 3
Megan Spees
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Hi guys!! These are the notes from last week as well as detailed CHAPTER SUMMARIES for the readings assigned to us! I will be posting those as well as a STUDY GUIDE at least 4 days before each EXAM...
Introduction to Cell Biology
Dr. Kim Baker
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Spees on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 165-02 at University of Indianapolis taught by Dr. Kim Baker in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cell Biology in Biology at University of Indianapolis.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Tuesday, January 19, 2016 Intro: Themes of Biology; Week 1 Notes for BIO 165 What are some characteristics of living organisms? - 1) Consists of 1 or more cells • Unicellular (bacteria) - Single Cell —> carry out all functions required for life • Multicellular (humans) - Lots of specialized cells • EX) Kidney cell different from pancreas cell different from muscle cell - 2) Contais DNA • INFO • DNA—> CELL • Nucleotides • Genetic Code • Gene - Specific segments of DNA molecule; has info to make proteins • Proteins - Control chemical reactions; cell organism structure - 3) Use genetic info to reproduce • Mitosis** and Meiosis - 4) Use genetic info for growth and development - 5) Can extract energy from the environment and use it to do biological work - 6) Can convert molecules from environment —> new molecules - 7) Can respond to environmental changes - 8) Can regulate their internal environment • Homeostasis (Context of Energy) 1 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - maintaining a stable internal environment - 9) Are genetically related and have evolved • Evolutionary adaptations • POPULATIONS of organisms change - species • Occurs over MANY MANY MANY GENERATIONS - DNA = EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATION *********** - EX) Black and Spotted Jaguar - DNA Level (Mutation in enzyme) - Cellular Level (Black Pigment) - Organisms Level (Black coat) - Ecosystems Level - Black jaguar—> forests; Spotted—> savannah/grasslands - Levels of Biological Organization - Atoms, Molecules, Organelles, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, Organisms, Populations, Communities, Ecosystems, Biosphere 2 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 Chapter 2: Atoms and Molecules - Levels of Biological Organization - Matter - Anything that takes up space and has mass - Element - A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances; one type of atom - Compound - Consisting of 2 or more elements - O, C, H, N—-> 96% of Human Body!!!!!!!!!! - Trace Elements - Elements required in VERY small quantities - EX) Iodine in Humans; fish and salt, thyroid uses it for hormone regulation- goiter enlarged region of neck - EX) Nitrogen in plants; hard time thriving without it! - Emergent properties of a compound - Combine elements—> new properties emerge, “emergent” - Atom - Smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element; composed of subatomic particles - Proton- Positive Charge - Neutron- No Charge - Electrons- Negative Charge*** - Atoms have volume and mass - Mass of one proton or neutron = 1 Dalton= 1.7*10^-24 g - Mass of one electron= 0.0005 daltons—> NOT COUNTED IN ATOMIC MASS 3 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - X: Elemental Symbol - Z: Atomic Number ( # of protons) - A: Mass Number (# of protons + # of neutrons) A - X Z - Isotopes—> Some are radioactive - 2 Atoms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons - Applications of Radioactive Isotopes in Biological Research - Dating Fossils - Tracing Elements Through Metabolic Processes - Diagnose Medical Disorders - Electrons * - The # of E determine how atoms will interact - Chemical reactions—> Changes in the distribution of electrons b/t atoms - Electron Orbitals - 3D space where an electron is found 90% of the time - Electron Shell Diagram—> Used to predict - Fixed distance from atomic nucleus*** - First shell—> 2 electrons - Second shell—> 8 electrons - Valence Shell - Outer most shell 4 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - Reactive atoms: have unpaired electrons - Stable atoms: have full valence shells - Octet rule—> FILL OUTER SHELL!!!!!! - Molecule - Particle made up of 2 or more atoms joined together 5 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - Chemical Bond - Attractive force that links atoms to form molecules - Covalent bonds - Sharing a pair of valence electrons by 2 atoms - Single: sharing one pair of valence electrons - Double: sharing two pairs of valence electrons - Electronegativity - Atoms attraction for the electrons in a covalent bond - C + H —> similar values—> equal sharing - N + O—> more—> unequal sharing - Nonpolar covalent bond - Atoms share electrons equally - Polar covalent bond - Atoms do not share electrons equally - One atom is more electronegative - C - H : nonpolar - O- H : polar - N - H : polar - Ions - Charged atom - Cation: + - Anion: - - Ionic Bonds - Attraction between anion and cation - Buffers and salts and whether they dissolve in water; important in bio; NaCl example - Ions interact w/ polar molecules 6 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - Water great solvent; salts are able to dissolve b/c of polarity - Hydrogen Bond - Electrical attraction b/t a partially positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a partially negative atom in another molecule EX) WATER - It is possible to have hydrogen bonds w/n the same molecule - Hydrogen bonds help maintain structure - EX) Helps hold DNA/INFO molecule together - Van Der Waals Forces - Interactions of electrons in non polar substances - EX) Gecko climbing up wall; hairs on feet of gecko that can interact w/ substances in wall—> Strong interaction - Molecular Shape and Function - Electron Shell Diagram - Orbitals—> more accurate representation of shape - Shape determined by position of atoms valence orbitals **** - Molecular shape and brain chemistry - 2 neurons communicating - Molecules with similar shapes can have similar biological properties - Chemical Bonds - Lead to new arrangement of atoms 7


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