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Week 3 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Week 3 Notes LSLS 7060

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae

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About this Document

These are the notes for week 3 of class. They cover chapter 6 of our "Applied Linguistics" textbook, as well as the article titled, "Morphology."
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LSLS 7060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Hye Pae in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Week 3 Notes Morphology Written by Krista Anstead January 2016 Learning Outcomes Articulate what morphology means and how it functions in sentences Understand challenges of learning L2 English especially with different L1 morphological systems Use morphological properties in your teaching practice Readings References Razfar A amp Rumenapp J 2014 Morphology Building words with English learners n Applying linguistics in the classroom A sociocultural approach pp 2241 New York Rou edge Rubba H nd An Overview of the English Morphological System Reading presented in California Polytechnic State University Retrieved January 25 2016 Chapter 6 Notes Introduction What one language does in syntax another language may do in morphology Thinking through the lens of morphosyntax can help alleviate any confusion Linguistics operates on the assumption that language is made up of two major parts 0 Grammatical code 0 Lexicon all words in a speaker s mind Languages have a fairly predictable set of rules that can help us make words quotWords are the most dynamic purveyors of historical information and serve as living artifacts of human history etymology study or word origins 0 provides cultural historical ideological and political information about language 0 helps us to see that words can change due to context cognates words that look or sound similar in other languages 0 useful to ELs because these words are often used similarly in both languages Whorf Hypothesis language structure essentially creates culture and restricts thinking to that which we are able to speak about Basic Concepts of Morphology Morphology quotstudy of a language s morphemes and the rules governing its transformations for communicative purposes 0 More simple definition how words are built internally to create meaningful units 0 Consists of words affixes intonation stress and implicitexplicit context of use Helps us to understand how ELLs struggle to make meaning in a new language Morphemes smallest unit of meaningful language Lexeme all forms of one word including all tenses There are three parts of words 0 Rootfree morpheme the part of the word that can stand by itself and hold meaning 0 Prefix o Suffix Morphological Process Inflection o Happens by adding affixes o Adds or marks grammatical information 0 Does not change part of speech or word meaning 0 Language differences I Very little inflection in Mandarin and changing verbs to past tense I Spanish inflects words based on gender Derivation o Happens by adding affixes 0 Changes the meaning of the word 0 May result in different part of speech Reduplication o A whole part of a word is doubled o Indonesian house houses rumah rumahrumah 0 Tagalog buy will buy bili bibili Alteration 0 Actual changes to word rather than just adding affixes o Verbs that break the rules of past tense in English 0 Man men foot feet Suppletion 0 Use of one word as the inflected form of another word 0 Not predictable irregular exceptions to rules 0 Was am 0 Most challenging in English is the verb quotto be Different Types of Morphological Systems in World s Languages Morphological structures vary on language Types of morphological systems 0 Fusional many words can be made up of multiple morphemes by fusing them togetherEngHsh o Isolating almost every word is a single morpheme Mandarin o AggulatingPolysynthetic combine different morphemes to for a word but the word has the meaning of an entire sentence Inuit languages Derivational and Inflectional Rules in the Classroom quotAs teachers we need to understand that incorrect inflection use is not wrong in the sense that students do not know how to use English but rather students understand rules of morphology in an impressive way but might now yet know all the exceptions understanding how words are inflected may help us identify deep issues in student learning 0 does the student understand the past tense and didn t inflect kick or does the student need to work on conceptual ordering Morphology Article Notes 16 useful definitions morpheme smallest meaningful part of a word free morpheme a morpheme that is a word itself bound morpheme a morpheme that can only be used with others base foundation to which other morphemes can be added aka stem root morpheme that can have affixes part left when strip away all other morphemes affix prefixes beginning suffixes end and infixes inside of root inflection affix used to indicate grammatical categories derivation affix used to create new word turning nouns into verbs etc content morpheme names a conceptidea common parts of speech function morpheme signals relationships between other morphemes articles prepositions auxiliary verbs simple word contains only one morpheme complex word contains more than one morpheme compound word combination of two or more words morphonemicsAllomorphy study of how morphemes change pronunciation allomorphis different pronunciations of one morpheme lexeme words at they appear in the dictionary in their simple form having their own entry English Inflectional Morphology Three inflectional categories 0 Numbers and possession in nouns books 0 Tense of verbs painted 0 Comparison in adjective taller Irregular inflections 0 Unusual suffix oxen Change of stem vowel feet Change in stem form thought Suppletion change in entire word be am 0 O O o Syntactic marking future of verbs comparison in adjective will more English Derivational Morphology non opposite ity changes to noun un opposite ous changes to adjective re repeat able changes to adjective Ways of Creating New Words affixation compounding zero derivationconversionfunctional shift same word different meaning 1 9 P gt39 Squot3939gtS quot stress shift record record clipping slang shortening of a word brother bro acronym formation blending parts of two separate words creating one new word brunch backformation creation of a new word by removing affix and using base as new root burger adoption of brand names as common words 10 onomatopoeia 11 borrowing word taken from another language Allomorphy or Morphophonemic Variations in English not always reflected in spelling affects affixes and roots can vary due to nearby sounds allomorphs pronunciation variants aka morphophonological process allomorphic variation phenomenon of variation in pronunciation


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