Week 1 HDFS221
Popular in Child Development II
Popular in Human Dev And Family Sciences
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Mickle on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS221 at University of Delaware taught by Jennifer Vu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Child Development II in Human Dev And Family Sciences at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Issues in development: Nature & nurture: Genetics or environment? Which influence our behaviors, thoughts, and feelings Originally thought of as nature vs. nurture but now is being seen as nature through nurture (one side could be more influential but both sides contribute) Continuous vs. stage like development: continuous development (quantitative changes & incremental theories?) or in stages (qualitative changes & stage theories)? Stability vs change: are we the same people throughout the lifespan or do we change ourselves along the way? ex. aggressiveness tend to remain stable over time how we express aggressive may change over time Individual differences: equifinality: different pathways of development can result in the same outcome multifinality: same pathway can lead to different outcomes Role of child development: Some different perspectives Behaviorism children are passive recipients of forces outside of their control Jean Piaget kids actively explore their surroundings Lev Vygotsky learning is a collaborative process between the child and experiences that happen around him Sandra Scarr: active niche picking Richard Learner Context of development: Child familySES socioeconomic stability, schoolmake friends and become victims of bullies, communitycharacteristics of the community affect children Role of Culture: Collectivism: cultural value that emphasizes obligations to others within your group Individualism: cultural value that emphasizes the importance of the individuals with emphasizes the importance of the individ. w/ emphasis on independence and reliance on one’s own abilities Field of cultural neuroscience Why are theories of development are important? Developmental theories are archetypes of development that allow us to organize our knowledge, make predictions about new info In understanding development, a theory must explain how change happens, why do certain aspects stay the same, is due to nature, nurture, or an interaction between the two How theories may differ: domain of development studied, research method used, central issues addressed Some theories of development: Psychoanalytic theory: Freud ∙ Conscious mind vs. unconscious mind (free association) ∙ Personality is made up of 3 mental structures: IDbad things you want, egomediator, superegoangel on your shoulder ∙ Edo development Freud’s Psychosexual stages: ∙ Oralbiological stimulation through mouth>anal control>phallic try to understand their genitals>latency boys in love with moms and want to kill their dads>genital try to reproduce ∙ All biological drives goal is survival & propagation of the species ∙ Each stage is associated with conflicts between the child’s desires and society’s expectations Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages: ∙ Neofreudian ∙ Development of identity till teens ∙ Incorporated social factors ∙ 8 stages of psychosocial development (ex. mistrust vs. trust) Modern applications of psychoanalytic theory: ∙ Freud: use of psychotherapy to uncover inner conflicts from unconscious life experiences ∙ Erikson: understanding the social contextculture, environment & social experiences in which development happens Behaviorism & Social Cognitive theory: ∙ Classical conditioning: learning in which existing behaviors come to be elicited by new stimuli (Pavlov, Watson). Notion of Phobias. Ex. Little Albert. ∙ Operant conditioning: learning in which changes in behavior are shaped by the consequences of that behavior, which results in the rise of new and more complete behaviors (B.F. Skinner). Reinforcements, punishments, extinction. ∙ Social cognitive theory: people learn new behaviors by shaping and molding. Importance of internal mental processes (cognitions). Notion of selfefficacy. Bandura Modern app. Of behaviorism: Classical conditioning: deconditioning of phobias Operant conditioning: creating a taken economy (classroom management, therapy) Socialcognitive theory: developing selfefficacy Theories of cognitive development: Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: ∙ Schema: mental grouping that provides a model for understanding the world ∙ Adaptation: involves assimilation & accommodation ∙ Disequilibrium and equilibration Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory: ∙ Cognitive development as a socially mediated process ∙ Development is both continuous (schemas) and discontinuous (language) ∙ Zone of proximal development (ZPD) Information processing: ∙ Connectionist or neural network model o Memory is a neural network of concept nodes interconnected by links ∙ Learning involves modifying the strength of the connections Modern app. Cognitive theories: Piaget’s theory; constructivismidea that children actively learn & work to construct the world around them. Fostering a teaching style that promotes the active approach Vygotsky’s sociocultural theoryuse of dynamic assessment to identify the child’s zone of proximal development Information processinghelps in separating the process of learning into basic parts Evolutionary theories: ethology & sociobiology Ethology: ∙ Konrad Lorenz ∙ Imprinting: automatic process by which animals attach to their mothers Sociobiology: ∙ Edward O. Wilson ∙ Kin selection Modern app. Of evolutionary theories: ∙ Evolutionary developmental psychology o What kids do is to prepare for adult life o Every child adapts at his/her own stages in development & circumstances in life ex. Girl enters puberty earlier if parents have strong conflict in relationship, absent spouse, insecure relationships with mom Ecological theory: Bronfenbrenner ∙ Sociocultural model that presents a reciprocal feedback loop between children and their environments that impact them ∙ Presents a broader theory of those environments that affect individual and family function in addition to parentchild relationships ∙ 4 environmental systems ranging from finegrained inputs of direct interaction with social agents to broadbased inputs of culture ∙ org. into multiple environmental groups ∙ Microsystem: activities and interaction patterns in the child’s immediate surroundings ∙ Mesosystem: relations between microsystems ∙ Ecosystems: setting in which the individual does not have an active role ∙ Macrosystem: values, customs, resources of child’s culture ∙ Chronosystem: sociohistorical/culture conditions Modern applications of ecological theory: ∙ to understand child development researchers expanded the range & number of variables ∙ Leads to the creation of social policy meant to provide help to children and their families (Head Start) Dynamic systems theory: Esther Thelen, Kurt Fischer, Jose Campos ∙ Child’s mind, body, and physical and social worlds are a dynamic and integrated system ∙ Incorporates aspects of both nature and nurture Neuropsychology & behavioral genomics: Neuropsychology: study of brain & behavior interaction. Behavioral genomics: study genes and behavior interaction Culture and developmental theory: theories discussed were developed by European or American theorists (focus on development of person)
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