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Week 1 of Anatomy Lab

by: Rebecca Hall

Week 1 of Anatomy Lab Biol- n 261 Anatomy Lab

Rebecca Hall
GPA 3.8
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About this Document

These notes cover notes from lab book and slides in class as well as little notes from what the professor said during the slides.
Anatomy Lab
Dr. Yard
Class Notes
Biology, anatomy lab, anatomy, Anatomy Notes, notes, cells, Yard, planes




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Hall on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol- n 261 Anatomy Lab at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis taught by Dr. Yard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Anatomy Lab in Biology at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis.

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Date Created: 01/26/16
Anatomy Lab 1 Exercise 1  Anatomic Position  The head is erect, eyes open, arms straight and by the sides, palms facing forward, knees straight, feet together, and flat on the ground  Directional Terms  Superior: Above  Inferior: Below  Medial: toward the midline  Lateral: toward the side  Superficial: toward the surface  Deep: toward the core  Ventral (or anterior): to the front  Dorsal (or posterior): to the back  Proximal: near the trunk  Distal: away from the trunk  Craniad: Toward the head  Caudad: toward the “tail”  Ipsilateral: same side of the body  Contralateral: on the other half of the body  Remember directional terms don’t change if the body’s position changes, because you refer to the body as if it were in anatomical position  Organs  11 organ systems  Integumentary  Skeletal  Muscular  Nervous  Endocrine  Cardiovascular  Lymphatic  Respiratory  Digestive  Urinary  Reproductive  Planes of Sectioning  Transverse plane (horizontal plane): body or organ cut into superior and inferior parts [also known as a cross section]  Frontal Plane (coronal): body cut into anterior and posterior portions (front and back)  Sagittal Plane: cut into left and right portions  Midsagittal (median): equally cut into left and right portions  Parasagittal Plane: unequally cut left and right portions  Body Cavities Cavity: enclosed space inside the body Visceral Layer: inner layer, against the organ itself Parietal layer: outer layer, facing body wall  Cranial Cavity: houses brain  Vertebral Canal: houses spinal cord  Thoracic Cavity: (above diaphragm) houses heart and lungs  Pleural Cavities: lungs  Pericardial cavity: Heart  Mediastinum: (region between pleural cavities) heart, esophagus, and vessels  Abdominopelvic Cavity: (below diaphragm) the two are divided at the superior portion of hip bones  Abdominal Cavity: stomach, small intestine, most of large intestine, various digestive organs  Pelvic Cavity: terminal part of large intestine, some reproductive organs (uterus + ovaries)  Regions of the Body  Cephalic (head)  Frontal (forehead)  Orbital (eye)  Nasal (nose)  Buccal (cheek)  Oral (mouth)  Mental (chin)  Cervical (neck)  Nuchal (back of neck)  Trunk  Thoracic (chest) Pectoral Sternal  Acromial (shoulder)  Abdominal (belly)  Inguinal  Genital (pubic)  Coxal (hip)  Upper Extremity  Axillary (armpit)  Brachial (arm)  Cubital (elbow)  Antebrachial (forearm)  Carpal (wrist) *think carpal tunnel  Manual (hand)  Digital (finger)  Lower Extremity  Femoral (thigh)  Patellar (knee)  Popliteal (back of knee)  Crural (leg)  Tarsal (ankle)  Pedal (foot)  Digital (toe)  Abdomen  Clinical: 4 quadrants  Anatomic Studies: 9 regions  Subcostal Line: inferior to ribs  Intertubercular line: separates the umbilical region from the hypogastric region  Quadrants - Clinical  Right Upper  Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, right kidney, portions of stomach, small and large intestine  Left Upper  Left lobe of liver, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of large intestine  Right Lower  Cecum, appendix, and portions of small intestine, reproductive organs (right ovary in female and right spermatic cord in male), and right ureter  Left Lower  Most of small intestine, and portions of large intestine, left ureter, and reproductive organs (left ovary in female and left spermatic cord in male)  Abdominal Regions – Anatomic Studies  Right hypochondriac  Left hypochondriac  Epigastric  Right lumbar (lateral abdominal)  Left Lumbar (lateral abdominal)  Umbilical  Hypogastric  Right iliac (inguinal)  Left iliac (inguinal) Gallstones -> pain in epigastric and/or right hypochondriac region Appendicitis -> pain in hypogastric and/or right inguinal region Microscope – Exercise 2  Eyepiece (ocular) -> 10x Total magnification = ocular mag. X objective mag Field of view decreases when you use higher-power objective lenses Metric System - Length is important to know for anatomy 1 millimeter = 0.001 meters = 10 ^ -³ meters 0 Anatomy Lab 2 Exercise 3  Cell Structure  Cytology- scientific study of cells  Cell = smallest living unit in human body  Eukaryotic Cell – has membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane bound organelles  Protists, plants, fungi, and animals  Overview of cell  Phospholipid Bilayer – inner and outer phospholipid molecules [peripheral phosphate head and hydrocarbon (lipid) tail]  Unit membranes – the other phospholipid bilayers that enclose cytoplasmic structures  Plasma (cell membrane)(plasmalemma) – (proteins and lipids) outer boundary of the cell; fluid mosaics  Microvilli – small extensions of the plasma membrane of some cells that increase the surface area of a cell (digestive and urinary)  Cilia + flagella – extend from edges of cell; consist of bundles of microtubules & covered by plasma membrane [most cells do not have cilia] [flagella is only found in sperm cells]  Cilia – movement (movement of mucus along respiratory passage) shorter Cytoplasm Cytosol  Cytoskeleton – network of small filaments and tubules  Organelles – (small organ) suspended in cytosol  Intracellular Fluid (ICF)  Extracellular Fluid (ECF)  Functions of Cellular Structures  Ribosomes – smallest organelles; produce proteins  Free Ribosomes – polysomes; make proteins for use in cell, not for secretion  Mitochondria – convert energy in food to energy in molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)  Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) – near nucleus; produce proteins for use outside cell, bumpy surface; aids in synthesis of secretory and other proteins  Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) – distal extensions of RER; produce lipid compounds and detoxifies materials; farther from nucleus, stores calcium ions  Golgi Complex – Looks like pita bread (Cis face)receives material from ER and other parts of cytoplasm, assembles large molecules and transports (Trans face) material out of cell in secretory vesicles (fused with plasma membrane) Exocytosis, renewal of plasma membrane, and lysosomes  Lysosomes – vessel in cytoplasm; digest material w/ hydrolytic enzymes -> phagocytosis  Peroxisomes – use enzymes to convert hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen  Centrioles – composed of microtubules and form spindle apparatus (cellular division)  Nucleus – house genetic info of cell & controls various tasks of cell  Nuclear pores; regulate the exit and entry of proteins, RNAs, and other molecules  Nucleoli (sing. Nucleolus) – make ribosomes, in nucleus  Chromatin – DNA coiled around proteins called histones, visible as grainy material in interphase  Chromosomes – two arms chromatids connected to each other by a centromere  Mitotic apparatus – consists of spindle fibers (kinetochores) & two asters. In the middle are two centrioles forming the centrosome  Cell Cycle  First cell – Zygote  Interphase – most of cells life  Growth and duplication of DNA  Normal cellular function if not dividing any further G1 phase (8 or more hours) “Gap” ; growing in size & producing organelles S phase (6 or more hours) “Synthesis” ; DNA duplicated G2 phase (2-5 hours) Growing and prepares for mitosis  Mitosis – 4 phases (1-3 hours)  Prophase Condensation of chromatin into Chromosomes Nucleus disappears Nuclear membrane begins disassembling Mitotic apparatus appears  Metaphase Chromosomes align between the poles of cell (metaphase plate)  Anaphase Chromatids separate at centromere (each chromatid now known as new chromosome) Spindle fibers pull chromosomes opposite poles (centromere moves ; arms follow) Late anaphase – plasma membrane constricts (cleavage furrow) [ begins process of dividing cytoplasm]  Telophase When chromosomes reach poles Chromosomes unwind into chromatin Nucleus reappears Nuclear membrane reforms Mitotic apparatus disassembles  Cytokinesis  Splitting of cell’s cytoplasm into two parts Can occur in late anaphase or early telophase Ends when two separate daughter cells


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