Intro to Psych Chapter 4
Intro to Psych Chapter 4 PSY1010
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Bussard on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY1010 at Wright State University taught by Carmen Culotta in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Science at Wright State University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Chapter 4 Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythm Functions of Sleep: Why do we sleep, and what if we don’t? William C. Dement o Pioneer in sleep research o Tried an experiment on himself; lack of sleep made him a danger to himself and others but did not cause him to die. o We cannot die from lack of sleep because of microsleep Microsleep o A brief episode of sleep that occurs in the midst of a wakeful activity o Can help us survive by preventing total sleep deprivation Sleep stores body tissues and facilitates body growth o Sleep allows your immune system, nervous system, and organs time to replenish lost reserves and energy and to repair any cellular damage. Sleep increases immunity to disease o During sleep, the production of immune cells that fight off infection increases o Your immune system is stronger when you receive the appropriate amount of sleep. o Natural immune responses are reduced when there is a lack of sleep. Sleep keeps your mind alert o Not getting enough sleep causes a person to be inattentive and easily distracted o Sleep makes your body sensitive to norepinephrine (the neurotransmitter that keeps you alert during the day Sleep enhances your mood o Sleep activates many chemicals that influence your emotions and mood o You are more likely to be moody and irritable when you are sleep deprived Sleep is intimately connected to learning and memory o Emotional experiences as well as information that you have reviewed or rehearsed are more likely to be remembered Variations in How Much Sleep We Need Age o The older we get, the less sleep we need. Lifestyle o Our cultural beliefs, lifestyle habits, and bedroom environment also influence the amount of sleep that we need or get. Genetics o Genes may play a role in the amount of sleep that each of us requires. o Some people may be genetically predisposed to get up early in the morning and go to bed early Circadian rhythm o Changed in bodily processes that occur repeatedly on approximately a 24 hour to 25 hours cycle, including core temperature, alertness, hormone productions, and other biological processes. Suprachiasmatic o A group of brain cells located in the hypothalamus that signal other brain areas when to be aroused and when to shut down o Works like an internal clock Melatonin o A hormone in the body that facilitates sleep o Light information and melatonin regulate your sleep circadian rhythm and help you get to sleep or awaken. o As darkness increases, so does the production of melatonin in your body; “Dracula hormone” Weekend Lag and Jet Lag Staying up late, sleeping in, and trying to get back to a ‘normal’ sleep cycle is what causes our sleep circadian rhythm to go crazy and makes us irritable, tired, less attentive, and moody. Circadian rhythm resets when we travel to different time zones, which is when we experience jet lag. Working the Night Shift When on a night shift schedule, it is hard for your sleep circadian rhythm to reset. Night shift workers report having more hormonal irregularities, more accidents, injuries, and illnesses. Stages of Sleep: what research tell us electroencephalogram technology o Has helped researchers identify the five stages of sleep EEGs examine brain waves, which give researchers an image of our brain activity when we are awake and when we are asleep. When we are awake, our brain emits beta waves o Beta waves are rapid which a high number of cycles per second When we are awake and relaxed, our brain emits alpha waves. o Alpha waves are somewhat slower and less frequent than beta waves As we sleep, our brain wave patterns change in a predictable sequence REM sleep o The active state of sleep in which a person’s eyes move o Very active NonREM sleep o The relaxing state of sleep in which the person’s eyes do not move o A relaxed state o Where the sleep cycle begins The Four Stages of NonREM Sleep Stage 1 sleep o a light sleep and is characterized by theta waves o Theta waves are slower and less frequent o Your breathing and heart rate slow down o May experience sensations of falling or floating o Lasts from 1 to 7 minutes Stage 2 sleep o Sleep spindles (a pattern of slower theta waves sporadically disrupted by bursts of electrical activity) o Lasts 20 minutes o Breathing, muscle tension, heart rate, and body temperature continue to decrease o Clearly asleep but not easily awakened o Helps us process both simple and complex motor skills that we have learned Stage 3 and 4 sleep o slow wave sleep o you begin showing delta brain wave patterns o delta waves are large, slow brain waves o referred to as deep sleep o Heart rate, respiration, body temperature, and blood flow to the brain are reduced o Growth hormone is secreted o Episodic memory ( a major role of slow wave sleep for strengthening the long term storage of specific events and experiences) REM Sleep After 3040 minutes of slow wave sleep, your brain and body start to speed up again and you cycle back through stage 2 of non REM sleep and then enter REM sleep. Dreams during REM sleep are easily recalled REM behavior disorder o A condition in which normal muscle paralysis does not occur, leading to violent movement during REM sleep People may thrash, causing harm to others REM helps us process recent emotional experiences and to discard information that is trivial or less important to us REM rebound The loss of REM sleep is recouped by spending more time in REM on subsequent nights. When people lose REM sleep because of medications, drugs, or sleep deprivation, they make up for it on subsequent nights by spending more time dreaming A Typical Night’s Sleep A typical night of sleep consists of cycling through nonREM stages and REM sleep One complete cycle of nonREM and REM sleep take about 90 minutes As night progresses we spend less time in slow wave sleep and more time in REM sleep, meaning that the bodyrestoring functions of slow wave sleep take place early on, during the first few stages of sleep. o After early cycles, we spend longer in REM sleep. Dreaming: The Night’s Work Everyone progresses through dream states during sleep. Dreams do show some similarities in content from one culture to another o Dream themes that focus on basic needs or fears seem to be universal. Sigmund Freud’s Interpretation of Dream Freud called dreams the royal road to the unconscious o Dreams allow us to express fears and sexual and aggressive desires without the censorship of our conscious thought processes Manifest content o According to Freud, what the dreamer recalls on awakening o what you recall when you awake Latent content o According to Freud, the symbolic meaning of a dream o a symbolic interpretation Threat simulation theory o Suggests that dreaming is an ancient biological defense mechanism that allows us to repeatedly simulate potentially threatening situations so that we can rehearse our responses to these events. o Proposes that dreaming is essentially an ancient an ancient biological defence mechanism that allows us to experience potentially threatening so that we can rehearse our responses to these events. Dreams as Coping, Evolutionary Defense, or Just Biology at Work? The continuity hypothesis o suggests that dreaming is a way of coping with daily problems and issues o Dreams are not as symbolic as Freud suggested in this view. Memory theory o suggests that dreams are a way to consolidate information and to get rid of trivial details in our memories Activation synthesis theory o Suggests that dreams do not have symbolic meaning but are the by product of the brain’s random firing of neural impulses during REM sleep o The cortex of the brain attempts to create meaning out of these neural impulses by synthesizing them into familiar images or stories based on our stored memories. o not believed to have symbolic meaning Dreams aside, sleep research indicates that not everyone always gets a good night sleep, some people experience disturbances. Sleep Disorders: Tossing and Turning and more Sleep disorder o a disturbance in the normal pattern of sleeping o Affects approximately 25% to 40% of children and adolescents Insomnia o a sleep disorder in which a person cannot get to sleep and/or stay asleep o associated with a multitude of factors, including stress, coping with the loss of a loved one, a change in sleep schedule, obesity, chronic pain, drug abuse, anxiety, or depression. o Can be treated medically using antianxiety or sedative medications o long term use of sleep drugs may lead to dependence and serious side effects including memory loss, fatigue, and increased sleepiness. Chronic insomnia is best treated with a combination of taking medication for a limited time, cognitive behavioral therapy have evolved from our study of how we sleep. Treating insomnia: Go to bed only when sleepy, don’t do anything in bed except sleep, don’t look at the clock and think about how you’re not asleep yet, keep a regular schedule, and don’t drink alcohol because it doesn’t permit REM sleep (causes REM rebound the next night) Narcolepsy and Cataplexy Narcolepsy o a raresleep disorder in which a person falls asleep during alert activities during the day o stems from a loss of neurons in the hypothalamus of the brain o These neurons are responsible for producing a chemical called hypocretin that helps control the sleepwake cycle Cataplexy sudden loss of muscle tone Sleep apnea a sleep disorder in which a person stops breaking during sleep people may feel sluggish, tired, irritable, or unable to concentrate the next day because of the nighttime sleep disruption. suggested as one cause of sudden infant death syndrome or crib death when healthy babies die while they are sleeping Restless Leg Syndrome RLS o Neurological movement disorder occurring primarily at night in which a person has unpleasant sensations in the legs and an irresistible urge to move them to relieve the pain o people also experience periodic limb movement in sleep; includes involuntary leg twitches or jerking movements during sleep that occur roughly every 1540 seconds Sleepwalking Sleepwalking or somnambulism o occurs during nonREM slow wave sleep o people may cook, eat, open doors, or engage in minimal conversation during sleep walking o More common among children than adults o 15% of the population o Often have no memory of sleeping walking episodes Night Terrors and Enuresis Night terrors o very frightening nonREM sleep episodes o occurring during nonREM slow wave sleep and an attack may last 5 to 20 minutes o relatively rare disorder o more common in children o extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep (stage 4) without waking fully (brain does not block ability to move) Nightmares o a brief scary REM dream that is often remembered Enuresis o bedwetting o does not refer to the occasional nighttime bedwetting that is common among young children o diagnosed when a child who is at least 5 years old wets his or her bed at least twice a week over a 3 month period Gender, Ethnic, and Cultural Variations in Sleep studies have found that men report needing less sleep than women to function at their best and that women are more likely than men to sleep 8 hours or more In the area of sleep disorders, two consistent gender differences have emerged o Insomnia tends to be more frequent in women and sleep apnea in men Cultural variations in sleep habits also have been investigated o Meditation and prayer before sleep are reported by nearly half of US adults Sleep is necessary to our survival as food and shelter o Sleep refuels our bodies and minds, preparing us for the challenges of the next day. Dream Content o men tend to dream more about men and women dream about men and women equally o men have more physical aggression in their dreams; women dream of themselves as victims o men dream about sex more often, usually about unknown, attractive females o women dream about people they know more often Hypnosis A method occasionally used by researchers and psychologists to create a state of heightened suggestibility in others. o Can be therapeutic A person is asked to focus on an object, an image, or the hypnotist’s voice and seemingly fall asleep; but it is not sleep, though EEG brain wave patterns of hypnotized people show an increase in alpha waves. o A complex suggestion might be that your eyelids feel as though they are glued shut and you cannot open them. o People remain in control of their bodies and are aware of their surroundings Hypnotic susceptibility is the ability to become hypnotized o some people have a low degree of susceptibility, meaning they cannot be hypnotized o Others have a high susceptibility One well known test for measuring the degree to which people respond to hypnotic suggestions is the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale o The scale assesses your suggestibility to certain tasks while in a state of hypnosis with a trained hypnotist. Neuroimaging studies even document differences in brain activation between people who are highly hypnotizable and those who are low in hypnotic susceptibility Neuroscience explanation o not an imitation but real brain activity Explaining hypnosis: applying neodissociation and response set theories Neodissociation theory o Hilgard’s proposal that hypnosis involves two simultaneous states: a hypnotic state and a hidden observer o a person feels, perceives, and behaves differently than in a conscious state o one level of your consciousness voluntarily agrees to behave according to the suggestions of the hypnotist. o Hilgard believes that hypnosis works in much the same way, allowing the person to attend to the hypnotist’s suggestions while still being aware of what is happening through the hidden observer. Response set theory of hypnosis o asserts that hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness, but a cognitive set to respond appropriately to suggestions o hypnosis is merely a willingness to respond appropriately to suggestions o highly hypnotizable people enter hypnosis with the intention of behaving as a hypnotized person and hold the expectation that they will succeed in following the hypnotist’s suggestions. Lucid Dreaming o Dreaming while conscious that you are dreaming; being able to perform deliberate action in the dream. Believed to start during REM but may continue into other sleep stages. Evaluating the Research: What Hypnosis Can and Cannot Do Relieving pain o Under hypnosis, clients relax, which reduces pain, and/or distract themselves from the pain by focusing on more pleasing and pain free scenarios. Curing addictions o although hypnosis has been used as a treatment to stop smoking, nail biting, overeating, gambling, alcoholism, and other addictions, it has proven no more successful than other treatments at controlling these behaviors. Enhancing physical performance o hypnosis does not create superhuman capacities o being in a relaxed state such as hypnosis can enhance physical performance. Decreasing anxiety and enhancing psychotherapy o hypnosis has proven useful in decreasing fears and anxieties for people with a high susceptibility to hypnosis Enhancing or recovering memory o A controversial application of hypnosis Age regression a person’s reliving earlier childhood experiences Recovered memory when a person recalls forgotten traumatic events or information, such as events from a crime scene or from one’s childhood hypnosis does not endow us with superhuman strength, allow us to reexperience childhood events, or improve the accuracy of our memories. it can be of some benefit in decreasing pain, promoting relaxation, and perhaps enhancing therapy for some people Psychoactive drugs substances that influence the brain and thereby a person’s behavior. Three most common drugs are alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine Variations in Drug Use Illicit drug use is highest among young adults between the ages of 18 and 25, and is higher in males than in females young people are also engaging in nonmedical use of prescription drugs; intentional abuse of prescription drugs is the second most common type of illegal drug use by young people Drug Tolerance and Substance Dependence tolerance o a condition in which after repeated use, more of a drug is needed to achieve the same effect o after drinking alcohol frequently, a person will require more beers or glasses of wine to achieve a ‘buzz’ as tolerance develops, the difference between a safe dose and a potentially harmful dose, called the margin of safety, narrows substance dependence o a condition in which a person needs a drug in order to maintain normal functioning withdraw symptoms o physical or behavioral effects that occur after a person stops using a drug o symptom include vomiting, shaking, physical pain, hallucinations, or headaches How Drugs Work: Biology, Expectations, and Culture Psychoactive drugs alter your state of functioning by interfering with the normal workings of the nervous system o Drugs achieve these effects by interfering with or mimicking neurotransmitters in the brain Exposure to stress or trauma increases a person’s vulnerability to drug dependence The variety of psychoactive drugs in use today can be classified into four main groups o depressants o opiates o stimulants o hallucinogens Alcohol and Other Depressants depressants o drugs that inhibit or slow down normal neural functioning in low doses, depressant drugs often cause a feeling of wellbeing, or a ‘nice buzz’ o anxiety is reduced when the nervous system is slowed down In high doses, depressants can cause blackouts, coma, and death Depressants are normally grouped into alcohol, barbiturates, and sedatives Health Effects of Alcohol Alcohol inhibits the functioning of the brain stem, impairing motor functioning and coordination Binge drinking o excessive alcohol use over a short period of time that brings a person’s blood alcohol concentration to .08% or above o Binge drinking is two times higher among males than females Binge drinking and alcohol use may cause memory blackout where a person may not remember the events from the night before Chronic alcohol use can lead to Korsakoff’s syndrome (a memory disorder caused by a deficiency of vitamin B Because ingested alcohol crosses the placenta, women who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy put their unborn child at risk for fetal alcohol syndrome o FAS children tend to have low birth weight, exhibit limb, head, and facial deformities, and suffer brain abnormalities that retard intellectual functioning and cause difficulties in learning, memory, problem solving, and attention. Alcohol: Genetics, Culture, and Learning In some ethnic groups, such as Japanese and Chinese, drinking alcohol can cause facial flushing o this sudden reddening of the face is a genetic trait that rarely occurs in Europeans Environmental factors such as learning also play a role o the nature and quality of an adolescent’s environment influences alcohol dependence in teens that are genetically at risk for alcohol dependence. Social Costs of Alcohol Use More than half of rapists report that they drank alcohol before committing their crime In college campuses, alcohol plays a role in the majority of sexual assaults and rapes. Alcohol abuse also has economic costs o alcohol abuse is associated with excessive absenteeism, lost productivity of work, and higher rates of on the job injury o alcohol related car accidents costs about 51 billion dollars each year Barbiturates and Sedatives Barbiturates (downers) are a category of depressants that are typically prescribed to reduce anxiety or to induce sleep Sedatives and tranquilizers are also prescribed to reduce anxiety o In small doses, they slow the nervous system, promoting relaxation o In high doses, they severely impair motor functioning, memory, and judgment When these drugs are taken in combination with alcohol, they are potentially lethal because they can cause suppression of those brain areas that control breathing and heart rate o can lead to unconsciousness, coma, or death Date rape drug o Placed in a woman’s drink at a party or club without her knowledge or consent, and the combined effect of alcohol and roofies render her unconscious When used as prescribed, barbiturates and sedatives can be helpful in the short term treatment of anxiety disorders and sleeping problems such as insomnia o long term use or tranquilizers leads to memory loss and actually heightens anxiety Opiates (Narcotics) The Painkillers Opiates o painkilling drugs that depress some brain areas and excite others o Mimic painhibiting neurotransmitters in the body such as endorphins o include morphine, codeine, Vicodin, and oxycodone These drugs create excitation in other brain areas Opiates are extremely addictive o when a person takes opiates, the brain recognizes an abundance of pain inhibitors in the body and decreases its own production of endorphins Physical withdrawal symptoms o hot and cold flashes o cramps o sweating o shaking Caffeine: Java Jitters Stimulants o drugs that interfere with brain functioning by speeding up normal brain activity o five substances covered are caffeine nicotine cocaine amphetamines MDMA (molly) Caffeine a psychoactive drug because of its effects on the brain in small doses, caffeine gives us a boost, keeping us more alert and helping us focus in large doses, caffeine can wire a person, causing insomnia, upset stomach, racing heartbeat, nervousness, and irritability Excessive caffeine use increases the risk of high blood pressure and encourages the development of fibroid cysts in women’s breasts Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together decreases one’s awareness of alcohol’s impairment people are more likely to perceive that they are not as intoxicated as they are Nicotine: A Really Bad Habit Nicotine o active ingredient in tobacco and the source of a smoker’s craving for cigarettes o linked to lung cancer, throat cancer, emphysema, and heart disease o influences acetylcholine and glutamate in low doses, nicotine improves attention and memory o Elevates dopamine levels, leading to feelings of pleasure and reward In high doses, nicotine causes vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, and dizziness Withdrawal o symptoms include from other abused drugs such as cocaine, morphine, and alcohol Cocaine and Crack Snorted, smoked, or injected, cocaine is quickly absorbed into the body and thus reaches the brain rapidly o Crack (powdered cocaine mixed with water and other additives that is then boiled until a solid mass forms Cocaine o blocks a protein called the dopamine transporter which helps the reuptake of dopamine into the neuron o because the reuptake is blocked, free dopamine in the brain increases o the buildup of dopamine produces an instant surge of arousal, a feeling of pleasure and optimism o When the effect of cocaine wears off, the person crashes, showing decreased energy and depressed mood High doses o cause paranoia, sleeplessness, delusions, seizures, strokes, and potentially cardiac arrest Health effects of long term usage o chronic nosebleeds o damage to nasal cartilage o respiratory and heart problems Long term for prenatal o shows a small but less favorable effect on language, cognitive ability, and academic functioning into adolescence Amphetamines “uppers” “speed” have similar effects to those of cocaine methamphetamine o crystal meth o ice o chalk o crank o like cocaine, affects dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine levels in the brain Results include enhanced mood and pleasure, energy, alertness, and reduced appetite. MDMA ecstasy and molly Pill form the term molly typically refers to a purer MDMA in powder or crystal form Originally developed as an anti bleeding medication Enhance mood and energy levels o heightens users sensations o effect begins within half an hour of consumption and last approx. 36 hours Negative effects o insomnia o teeth clenching o nausea o increase in heart rate and blood pressure o fatigue o blurred vision o paranoia, depression, drug craving, overheating, cardiac problems, kidney failure, seizures, strokes, and/or loss of touch with reality MDMA increases the activity of several neurotransmitters in the brain o it is the serotonin transport pathway that has received the most attention o MDMA binds to the serotonin transport protein so that the availability of free serotonin increases Hallucinogens o drugs that interfere with brain functioning by simultaneously exciting and inhibiting the nervous system Marijuana o a mild hallucinogen o has been recommended for medical conditions such as glaucoma, chronic pain, and nausea from cancer chemotherapy and has been found moderately effective in clinical trials for muscle spasms and multiple sclerosis o THC = main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana absorbed into the lungs and produces a high that lasts for several hours binds to a neurotransmitter called anandamide which influences learning, short term memory, motor coordination, emotions, and appetite behaviors that are all affected when people are high on marijuana Marijuana also interferes with memory, disrupting both the formation of memories and the recall of information its stimulation of appetite and increased sensitivity to taste may result in an attack of the munchies in high doses marijuana may produce hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and distortions in time and body image long term effects lead to psychological dependence long lasting cognitive effects including impaired attention, learning, and motor coordination PCP was used as an anesthetic for surgery but was causing patients to grow worrisome side effects including hallucinations, delirium, disorientation now is manufactured illegally ‘angel dust’ ‘lovely’ has hallucinogenic properties as well as stimulant and depressant effects o PCP inhibits the neurotransmitter glutamate, which is involved in the perception of pain, responses to the environment, and memory in low doses o PCP produces a sudden increase in blood pressure, pulse rate, and breathing higher doses o causes a drop in blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration o hallucinations, confusion, paranoia, and garbled speech LSD referred to as ACID potent perception altering drug o increased blood pressure and heart rate, dizziness, loss of appetite, and nausea o main side effects are emotional and sensory emotions may shift rapidly from fear to happiness and the user may seem to experience several emotions at once synesthesia o when a person seems to hear or feel colors and see sounds LSD influence on the neurotransmitter serotonin o stimulates serotonin receptors, influencing perceptions, emotions, and sleep users experience enjoyable sensations on good ‘trips’ o bad trips produce terrifying thoughts and feelings, including fears of insanity, death, or losing control persistent psychosis o a long lasting psychoticlike state after the trip has ended Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder o a reexperiencing of the sensations originally produced by the LSD hours, weeks, or even years after its initial use that causes distress
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