Intro to Entomology; WEEK 1
Intro to Entomology; WEEK 1 ENTO 2010
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Popular in Entomology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 Entomology is the study of insects. Interesting Fact: Insect cells are quite similar to human cells. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Phylum: Arthropoda artho = jointed poda = foot Exoskeleton made of chitin. Body composed of segments. Have jointed appendages. Have an open circulatory system Have bilateral symmetry. Most carry out sexual reproduction. Class: Chilopoda (NOT Insects) chilo = lip poda = foot Common Name: centipede (3,000 species) One pair of legs per body segment. Carnivorous; predators feed on smaller arthropods. Live in soil and humus. Additional Facts: Centipedes have venom at the front of their bodies. Also, the front and back of their bodies look similar to confuse other predators. Class: Diplopoda (NOT Insects) diplo = two poda = foot Common Name: millipede (8,000 species) Two pairs of legs per body segment. They feed on decaying organic matter Live in similar habitats to centipedes. Class: Crustacea (NOT Insects) crust = hard; shelllike Common Names: lobster, crab, shrimp (26,000 species) Have branched appendages. Have aquatic habitats. They are considered the marine equivalent of insects; “water insects” Class: Arachnida (NOT Insects) arachne = spider Common Name: spider (57,000 species) Have no antennae. Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 Have two body segments. They are terrestrial. They are carnivorous. Class: Insecta in = into sect = cut Common Names: insect (1,000,000 known species) Have three body segments: Head, Thorax, Abdomen Have six legs. Most adults have wings. Have two antennae. They breathe through openings in body. Can be either terrestrial or aquatic. Interesting Fact: They are the only invertebrates that can fly. The notion of Insects as our Enemies: The Beginning DDT use in the 1940s and 1950s DDT = chlorinated hydrocarbon Pesticide = a chemical/substance used to kill pests Insecticide = a substance that kills insects Seen as a new way to collect insects. Began killing insects in huge numbers. Started adding DDT to gin which gave drinkers a “happy” feeling. Name of the drink: “Mickey Slim” DDT was considered a miracle chemical. DDT was developed for bodily usage due to increasing outbreaks of disease, particularly typhus spread by fleas. Public was informed that DDT will have no harm on their crops and bodies. DDT led to an “Era of Optimism,” in which everyone felt that things were getting better especially for crop yields. Farmers benefited from the use of DDT. 1874 – Dr. Othmar Zeidler synthesized DDT in Germany. 1938 – Paul Muller “discovered” DDT in Switzerland. He saw that DDT affects insects and efficiently kills them. He gave this info to England, France, and United States when WW II broke out. He eventually won the Nobel Prize of Medicine. 1942 – DDT was sent by Swiss scientists to the U.S. The Secret Army Lab was set up in Orlando, Fl. DDT was tested against lice, which also spread typhus. U.S. Army first used DDT in North Africa and Italy. Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 Frank Mayo Atlanta chemist during WW II DDT production was a military secret. Process was published in Germany. New technology after WW II develops pesticides, plastics, fertilizers, etc. DDT saved millions of lives in WW II First war in which enemy nations killed more people than disease. DDT was used to control typhus spread by lice. DDT caused the massive growth of the chemical industry Negative environmental consequences arose DDT kills birds as well as fish in rivers and streams. Wildlife is devastated. Entomologists Before 1950, they were “figures of fun;” not taken seriously. After 1950, they worked for chemical companies. Several entomologists given grants to find ways to stop insect growth. Entomologists started to see adverse “side effects” to other organisms. Birds, fish, livestock dying… etc. Entomologists evaluated “degrees of badness.” They were asked to assess how bad the effects were. However, the effects on the insects were so highly favored by companies and entomologists’ funds were being threatened that they did not stop the use of DDT. Entomologists at the University of Georgia and the company Velsicol made Goodbye, Mrs. Ant. a 1950s film promoting pesticide usage Entomologists declare that “without DDT, insects would inherit the Earth.” a feeling that insects would overrun the Earth without human intervention Ethical Issues of Entomologists Should UGA entomologists work for chemical companies? Entomologists may not get money if s/he gets “wrong” results. Can entomologists assess pesticide damage to environment? Putting into question if they are qualified enough to determine potential risks to others such as pregnant women, children, animals, etc. Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring She entitled her book Silent Spring to depict spring seasons without birds singing. Dedicated the book to Albert Schweitzer who said, “Man has lost the capacity to foresee and to forestall. He will end by destroying the Earth.” Rachel Carson Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 She believed that the Bill of Rights should protect us from the abuse of pesticides. Powerful pesticide industry fought her. They were concerned about lack of funding for furthering use and research. Government withheld information to citizens. Constantly downgrading the biological negative effects Believed the public was not educated enough to comprehend the negative consequences of these chemicals. Any information that spoke out against pesticide use was labeled as false and “misleading.” Frequent coverup of wildlife damage Silent Spring Most insects controlled by other insects. Most insects are actually beneficial. “You can’t eradicate an insect with a chemical.” Not very easy to do especially without harming the rest of the environment. Dieldrin on fire ants in Georgia. Dieldrin is 40X more toxic than DDT Everything in farmlands is dying, yet chemists are professing that there are no harmful effects. Toxic chemicals in the grocery store Essentially no controls were established, so general public could purchase these chemicals. Rachel Carson: Life & Achievements Age 1907 – Born in Springdale, PA 1929 – Received her B.A. at Pennsylvania College 22 1932 – Received her M.A. in Marine Biology at John Hopkins 25 1933 – Taught at University of Maryland 26 1936 – Worked at the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries 29 1941 – Published Under the Sea 34 1951 – Published The Sea Around Us 44 1955 – Published The Edge of the Sea 48 1960 – Cancerous tumor removed 53 1962 – Published Silent Spring 55 1964 – Dies of Breast Cancer 57 1980 – Jimmy Carter awards her the Medal of Freedom In 1964, Ruth Harrison wrote Animal Machines with a forward by Rachel Carson. Silent Spring –cont. Carson wrote with emotion. Vesicol tried to stop the publication. JFK and Udall became aware of the environment Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 Silent Spring became a best seller. One of the most important/influential books ever published. It had a heavy impact because of Carson’s eloquence. Later on was translated into 22 languages. Chemical industry tried to falsify the book by saying that it was “full of errors.” Jukes said that there were “no pesticide residues in food.” Silent Spring: Sales Soared Within one year, pesticide bills were introduced in 40 states. CBS TV interview with Rachel Carson Some sponsors pulled out of the CBS program because of the interview. Opposition: Dr. Robert WhiteStevens Dr. Robert WhiteStevens vs. Rachel Carson WhiteStevens claims, “The modern scientist believes that man is steadily controlling nature.” However, Carson stresses that “the balance of nature is built of a series of interrelationships between living things and between living things and their environment.” The balance of nature is put into question. U.S. Senate Hearing takes place Victor Yannacone Attorney of the Environmental Defense Fund who led the fight against DDT use. Hearings held in Wisconsin between 1968 – 1969 Chemists argued that if DDT is so bad, why doesn’t it make people sick? They figured that it can’t be so harmful because DDT workers were never poisoned by DDT exposure. Turning Point: Early 1969, Swedish scientists discover DDT in human breast and cow milk 1970 – Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established 1972 – DDT is banned by EPA. Rachel Carson: A Revolutionary Carson never wanted to ban pesticides Her view: pesticides were being abused and not under control. Carson was a revolutionary. She stated, “Those who contemplate the beauty of the earth find reserves of strength that will endure as long as life lasts.” She made us aware of the environment. She dies two years after Silent Spring is published. Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016
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