Week one of notes
Week one of notes chem 10061-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matthew Goetz on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to chem 10061-001 at Kent State University taught by David bowers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see general chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
General Chemistry 2 Notes: Ch. 15 Rules of thumb: Carbon always has 4 bonds Nitrogen typically has 3 bonds Oxygen typically has 2 bonds Halogens typically have 1 bond Organic Chemistry The study of carbon compounds Mainly concerns carbon bound to hydrogen Other common elements are H, F, N, O, P, S, Cl, Br, and I. Organic molecules are unique due to: Structural Complexity Chemical diversity Structural Complexity: Carbon 4 valence electrons Does not readily form ionic compounds Always follows the octet rule Has a unique ability to catenate: bind to itself. Small size of Carbon allows for good orbital overlap, causing strong bonds. Carbon has great stability. Chemical Diversity: Carbon Stable bonding to heteroatoms, which are same charged atoms. Forms both linear and ring structures. May form isomers as well. Carboncarbon double bonds are highly reactive. Functional Groups: Combination of atoms that undergo specific, characteristic reactions. Most organic reactions occur at the functional groups. Hydrocarbons: An organic compound made of hydrogens and carbons. Single bonds may rotate freely in hydrocarbons. Ex: Alkanes: Hydrocarbons with only single bonds. Called saturated hydrocarbons. Naming Organic Compounds: Prefix + Root + Suffix Root is the number of the longest, continuous carbon chain. Roots are: meth for 1, eth for 2, prop for 3, but for 4, pent for 5, hex for 6, hept for 7, oct for 8, non for 9, and dec for 10. Suffix for alkanes is –ane. Each prefix identifies branches off of a main carbon chain. An example of an alkane is: For this alkane, the longest carbon chain is 5, so the root is pent Then, there are 3 branches, located at carbon 2 and 4. Lastly, those branches are each only one carbon long, so they are methyl. Therefore, the name of this alkane is 2,2,4methylpentane. These compounds may also be drawn in a shorthand version, which may be seen here: In the shorthand, every numbered point is an individual carbon atom. Alkenes: Hydrocarbons with a CarbonCarbon double bond. Unsaturated hydrocarbons with restricted rotation due to double bond. For their names, the alkene suffix is –ene. These may also be cis and trans isomers due to the double bond. Trans are when the chain is the opposite following the double bonds Cis are when the chain is mirrored on both side of the double bonds. Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one CarbonCarbon triple bond. Unsaturated hydrocarbons. Suffix is –yne. Ex: This is pentyne because the longest chain of Carbons is 5 Carbons long. It has the 2 as a prefix for there is a triple bond between Carbon 2 and carbon 3.
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