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HIST225 Week 3 Notes

by: Kira Gavalakis

HIST225 Week 3 Notes HIST 225 0021

Kira Gavalakis
GPA 3.4
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About this Document

Notes from classes on Tuesday, January 26th and Thursday, January 28. No small group notes because of cancelled class due to snow.
U.S. History
Richard Meixsel
Class Notes
history, HIST225, James Madison University, Gen Ed, hist, American History, revolution, Revolutionary War, Founding Fathers, Declaration of Independence




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 225 0021 at James Madison University taught by Richard Meixsel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 01/26/16
WEEK 3 NOTES HIST 225    1/26/16    REVOLUTIONARY WAR: War between Great Britain and the 13 British colonies of  America    ● General Burgoyne  ­ British army officer  ­ Surrendered at Saratoga    ● Benedict Arnold  ­ Commanding General for America    ● General Gates  ­ Commanding American General  ­ Became a general by having a background of being a British officer (like General  Lee)  ­ represented a large number of European soldiers who ended up fighting for  America    ● Soldiers were sent to Virginia as prisoners  ● (Barracks road is in Charlottesville)  ● Problem British had­­ they didn’t know how to use their resources  ○ Let’s focus our attention on the South (because we really don’t know any other  way to try to win)    ● Charles Fox­­ was in opposition to the government  ○ Spoke in Parliament saying that the French will get involved in the war  ○ get more into this    Why Go South? (The war in the south from 1778­1781)  1. More Loyalists (Americans who are loyal to the King)  2. Better­placed to support Caribbean (because now France is in the war)  ­ most valuable possession for Europeans is sugar and sugar is from the Caribbeans  3. Army more easily supplied through southern ports  4. milder campaigning weather  ­ weather is better in the south  5. Slave revolts possible  6. Anyway, we’ve already tried up north without much to show for it    ● British do well in the south under​eneral Cornwallis  ○ British Army Officer  ○ Under him, the British capture Charleston  ○ Travels around South Carolina and wins battles, but it didn’t leave anything  ○ All he is doing is losing more of his men  ○ Doesn’t achieve anything concrete  ○ Not getting anything done  ○ So, he goes to Yorktown, Virginia with a large army  ○ But since he was on the coast, he could be surrounded by America  ■ French navy could seal off Cornwallis and leave him without  reinforcements  ■ America trapped him as well  ■ Cornwallis surrenders  ■ British is still not defeated, though (they have more troops than French  and America combined)  ● Why America Won  1. Poor British strategy  2. Appropriate Patriot strategy  ­ Fight a defensive war  ­ Win by not losing  ­ Drag the war out  ­ Tire the British  ­ Strike only when the chance for victory looks good while building up  American strength  ­ (not that he always took his own advice)  ­ Maybe, while doing this, something will go wrong for the British  ­ That “something” was Burgoyne’s defeat near Saratoga, New York  3. The French alliance  ­ Helped us out!  ­   4. Patriot dedication to the cause  ­ not the Loyalists because they were pro­British    *Just because the British had more troops, didn’t mean they had the best strategy.*      BACKGROUND TO THE CONSTITUTION    ● Americans went to war against British because they wanted independence from Britain  ● They were NOT fighting so they could replace centralized rule  ● The war brought an end to Great Britain’s rule  ● The war also brought some new PROBLEMS:    The Confederation Government  Challenges:  1. The debt problem  a. how do we pay off the army?  b. government borrowed money for the war (printed a lot of paper money)  c. we need some national effort to help us with this debt problem  2. Foreign affairs  a. Spain wanted to cut off American trade (why?)  b. Britain closed Caribbean market to American shipping (now no sugar!)  c. “Barbary pirates”  d. didn’t have protection from the British Royal Navy­­ the strongest navy in the  world! (Couldn’t fight against the Barbary pirates)  3. Domestic turmoil  a. Shays’s Rebellion, 1786­1787  i. Put himself at the head of farmers against state tax collections    Sugar Act and the Stamp Act seems like nothing compared to all of the taxes and debts they  have to pay now!    ● Articles of Confederation: “each state retains its sovereignty, freedom and  independence”  ○ Each state remains independent but is under the same power  ○ TOO MUCH democracy­­ can’t get anything done    ● But some states started paying off their debts  ● Remember, we did win the war against Britain!  ● Northwest Territory­­ land that doesn’t belong to anyone  ○ Northwest Ordinances­­ rules about the Northwest territory and how people could  take them over    ● Who were the first “Federalists”­­ The men behind the Constitution?  ○ Founding fathers of the United States  ○ Largely young men  ○ Largely men who were politically mature  ○ Played a part in the Revolution  ○ Been officers in the Continental Army    1/28/16    Founding Fathers  ● many in the army  ● want stronger national government  Constitution­ Philadelphia 1787  ● 12 of 13 states came to Philly­­ RHODE ISLAND did not send a delegate → no interest  in changing anything  ● members met IN SECRET­ closed doors and windows  ● but James Madison took notes!  ○ His writings are how we know what happened at the Constitutional Convention!  ○ he is “Father of the Constitution”  ○ GO JM(U)!!!  James Madison  1. He took notes (most of our knowledge of what was said at the convention comes from  him)  2. He wasn’t married (age 36 at the time)  3. He came with a plan (The Virginia Plan or “Resolves”)    The Constitution: Issues  1. Congressional Representation  a. Article I of Constitution­ Legislative Branch  b. WHO will be represented? HOW will they be represented?   2. How powerful should the executive be?  a. Article II of the Constitution­ Executive Branch  b. The Electoral College    Note: Popular votes were NOT counted until the 1824 election!     John Quincy Adams, Rutherford B. Hayes, Benjamin Harrison, and George W. Bush were  elected with FEWER VOTES!!    Constitution does not say that the president with the most votes from the people wins! It’s the  people with the majority of ELECTORAL votes!    Hopefully this doesn’t happen for Fall election of 2016…    Article III­ Independent Judiciary    ● Probably a majority of Americans in 1787 were not supportive of the Constitution    What those who favored ratification had going for them:  1. They had a title: Federalists­­ Not exactly the same as the “Federalist Party” of the 1790s  (not anti­ because that sounds bad… i.e. you’re not anti­life, you’re pro­choice)  a. Madison­­ “Father of the Constitution”­­ was a leading​opponent ​ f the Federalist  political party that emerged in the 1790s  The Federalists...  2. Had a program  3. Controlled the press  4. Circumvented the state assemblies  5. Only nine of the 13 states had to ratify the Constitution    There are a lot of things that we do not follow in the Constitution   There are a lot of things that are not in the Constitution that we now follow    Problems of Ratification  1. Too few representatives?  a. What does the Constitution specify? (Article I, Section 2?) ­­ Can’t be more than  1 for every 30,000 people  b. Should each state have equal representation in Congress? Or should they be  represented by their size, population, taxes, etc?  c. 435 representatives in the US­­ that’s representing too many people to know  every single one of them!  2. Many people did not want a strong national government  3. It doesn’t have a “Bill of Rights”  a. Madison on a Bill of Rights  i. Can the general government exercise any power not delegated to it? If an  enumeration be made of our rights, will it not be implied, that everything  omitted, is given to the central government?  ii. Doesn’t want a Bill of Rights    Hamilton (Federalists) vs. Jefferson (Republicans (now the Democrats))  And the Emergence of POLITICAL PARTIES in the early Republic    President Washington’s ​Farewell Address: ​“BEWARE THE BANEFUL EFFECTS OF PARTY!”    ● Even when parties formed, people would deny that they supported anything    Alexander Hamilton  ● He is different than the other Founding Fathers because he is from the Caribbean and  not from America (he also wasn’t born in wealth)  ● Wealthy men sponsored Hamilton after his mother died and his mother’s former husband  took over Hamilton’s business  ● Hamilton attended King’s College (now Columbia University)  ● Washington appointed Hamilton to Secretary of Treasury­ most important position below  the President  ● Hamilton’s “Grand Design”  ○ First Plan: Report on the public credit (1790)  ■ Fund debt at face value (to current creditors)  ■ Federal government to assume state debts  ■ Country to prove its creditworthiness  ○ Second Plan: Report on a national bank (1791)  ■ To regulate the government’s money supply  ○ Third Plan: Report on manufactures (1791)  ■ Federal government should stimulate manufacturing through tariffs (tax  on foreign imports), bounties, etc.  ■ Tariffs encourage items to be made in America (people don’t want to buy  items with tariffs on them)                             


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