Psych 360: Chapter 2 Notes
Psych 360: Chapter 2 Notes Psych 360
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sammykins96 on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 360 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Larson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Social Psych in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/26/16
Philosophy of Psychology Research Methods Review 1) Situations has more impact on social behavior than we think it does 2) Personality has less impact on social behavior than we think it does 3) Social Psychology is (in part) the scientific study of how situations influence thoughts, feelings, & behavior. Social Behavior Situation Personality (Social Psych) (Personality Psych) Social psych is based on SITUATIONAL influence on our thoughts, feelings, and behavior! Fundamental Attribution Error: Situations have a bigger impact than we think they do Our eyes and mind can deceive of us things that are obliviously in front of us Philosophy of Psychology Does a influence b? o Example(s) Social Behavior: Does where you sit in class affect your performance? Physiology: Does smoking cause lung cancer? o Whenever a happens b happens afterwards. Domino A falls into Domino B, when Domino A hits Domino B, Domino B will fall over. Can we know anything? o Nihilism: the idea that we cannot know anything If holds, we’re wasting our time! o Positivism: the idea that we can know things Exceptions do not withhold conclusions! What does influence mean? o Two Types of Influence Deterministic Influence: a always results in b Taking the reflex hammer and hitting your knee, you will always kick! Probabilistic Influence: a increases the likelihood of b Adding dominos to the bowl to make the bowl fall over. o Each domino increases the chance that the bowl falls over Synonyms for Influences o o Affects o Leads o Contributes o Has an impact o Causes* * probabilistic influence Why is probabilistic influence a thing? o Principle of Multiple Determinism: Phenomena are influenced by many factors o CONSEQUENCES OF IGNORING… Magic Bullet Fallacy*: mistakenly assuming that phenomena are influenced by a single factor Fallacy: Failure in reasoning that makes an argument invalid False Dichotomies: mistakenly assuming that if c influences b, then a does not influence b. Example: Aggression (b) is caused by bad family life (c). Mental illness (a) does not influence aggression (b). Is probabilistic influence meaningful? o Yes! Extremely meaningful when it comes to things like cancer and heart attacks But what about social behavior with things like aggression? We live in a probabilistic world while we try to live in a deterministic one. Type of question we should ask: Can violent media help push some people over the edge? How We Come To Know “Heart Knowledge” (Gut Reaction, Intuition!) o Perfectly valid for many judgements (Not valid for social behavior) o Given: You are given a fair coin You’re going to toss it 5 times st 1 = Heads 2 = Heads rd 3th Heads 4 = Heads 5 = what is the % that tails will be next? o Remember, the coin is fair, so 50% to be tails! o Some don’t think about that, and they are overly confident that the next toss will be more likely to be tails! Gambler’s Fallacy: If something happens more frequently than normal during some period, it will be less likely to happen in the future. Example: Having two boys already, everyone will tell you that the next child you’re going to have would be a girl. “They just know it’s more likely to be the opposite sex of the children you already have” (Too frequent to occur again!) “Head Knowledge” o Reason Aristotle Effects of Violent Media o “We’re [humans] are like bottles of steam and we gotta find ways to let the steam out. (Like going to the theatre, or playing violent video games) Some of your starting points can be wrong o Sex Differences “Women have less blood than men. Women have less teeth than men. Woman have less blood than men because they have less teeth.” –Thrown the argument out because this isn’t valid! o Authority “Trust us, we know what we are doing” o Empiricism Relying upon evidence as the source of knowledge Two Types Scientific Empiricism: Does a b? o Assume multiple determinism is at work! Gather LOTS of data Gather that data SYSTEMATICALLY! o Not just data at hand! o Not just data you want! o Not just vivid data! Non-Scientific Empiricism- (Horoscopes, Diet Pill Ads) o Anecdotal Evidence: evidence gained from only a few cases A.E is enough when dealing with deterministic influence/causation o Cherry-Picked Evidence: A.E selected because it supports your hypothesis. Research Methods Two Scientific Approaches 1. Correlational Studies (going hand-in-hand) [Synonyms: associated, related to] a. Why: If a b then… i. a will be correlated with b ( a b ) b. How? i. Identify population ii. Gather random sample iii. Measure two variables (a and b) iv. Calculate the relationship/correlation 1. Scatterplots 2. Correlation Coefficient c. What can you conclude? i. There is a correlation d. What can you NOT conclude? i. Correlation DOES NOT equal causation so you cannot find if the correlation means there is causation. e. Maxim: Correlation does not imply causation i. Unpacked: “A correlation between a and b does not mean that a influenced b” ii. Why not? 1. If a b, then a b, but there are two other reasons why a b. 2. Reverse Influence: two variables are correlated not because a b, but because a b. 3. Spurious Influence: two variables are correlated, but only because both are influenced by some third variable (known as z) 2. Experiments a. Why: i. To address alternative interpretations… conduct experiments! b. How: i. Identify population ii. Collect random samples iii. Manipulate variable 1. Experimental Group: One you’re changing 2. Control Group: Not changing a. Side Note: Groups in psychological studies is often referring to people who are all completing the same task, but are unaware that there are others doing the same task as they are. iv. Random Assignment v. Measure variables Random Sampling vs. Random Assignment Random Sampling: This is how you get your population Random Assignment: This is what you do when you’ve already got them.
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