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rocks and minerals

by: Ashley Barry

rocks and minerals 1610

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Geology > 1610 > rocks and minerals
Ashley Barry

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rocks and minerals
Johnny Byers
Class Notes
geology 1610 byers unt
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Barry on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1610 at University of North Texas taught by Johnny Byers in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Geology in Geology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Thursday, September 3, 2015 Rocks and Minerals From biology to geology: Phylogeny:the evolutionary development of any plant or animal ontogeny-the life cycle of a single organism rocks and minerals-grow from single atom just as life grows from a single cell atom: first energy level: shell second energy level:shell third level energy:shell atoms can be combined eight elements:98 percent of crust oxygen:(O)-46.6 percent silicon (Si)- 27.7 percent Aluminum (Al)- 8.1 percent iron (Fe)- 5 percent calcium (Ca)-3.6 percent sodium (Na)-2.8 percent potassium (K)-2.6 percent magnesium (Mg)-2.1 percent out of 90 naturally occurring rock-aggregate of one or more minerals (granite,marble,shale) or solid organic matter (coal) ;igneous rock mineral-naturally occurring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical composition,crystal form,and physical properties -an amorphous compound such as opal would be a mineraloid seven rock forming minerals: quartz feldspar mica amphibole pyroxene olivine clay minerals out of 2,700 Quartz (SiO2) Feldspar group (K,AL,Si3,O8) 1 Thursday, September 3, 2015 potassium feldspar (orthoclase)-K,AL,Si3,O8 Na,AL,SI3,O8-ALBITE-PLAGIOCLASE cA,AL2 non silicates any rock or mineral that does not have at least one silicon and three oxygen (SiO3) example:NaCl(halite);CaCO3(calcite);Ca,Mg(CO3)2-dolomite Silicate Group make up 75 % of the crustal rocks in earth fundamental unit is silica-oxygen tetrahedron SiO4 can be arranged to form different structures common properties to identify minerals crystal form,color,streak,luster,reaction to acid,magnetic,taste,feel,striation lines,hardness,optical properties such as double refraction,cleavage planes,cleavage angles,etc apply as many tests as possible the most definitive combinations of tests points to the most likely answer crystal face-quartz;crystal form is the external expression of internal atomic structure metallic-looks like metal,rusty nonmetallic-vitreous,pearly,silky,resinous,earthy Moh’s scale of hardness 1.talc gypsum calcite fluorite apatite orthoclase quartz topaz corundum 10.diamond diamond-10 on moh’s scale carbon “c” found in kimberlite pipes color does not always work when identifying diamonds fracture irregular hacky conchoidal results from a break through a plane of strength 2 Thursday, September 3, 2015 striation lines indicative of an oscillation between two different types of crystal forms Reaction to HCL (hydrochloric acid) other properties taste smell feel specific gravity double refraction temp and pressure carbon “c” graphite low pressure and temp carbon “c” diamond found in kimberlite pipes possible composition of the interior of the earth feldspar-crystal size tells rate of cooling isotopes two or more varieties of the same element that have the same atomic number and chemical properties but differ in mass numbers because they have varying numbers of neutrons selenite,fibrous gypsum,alabaster 3


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