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BIO102 Lecture Notes Week 1

by: Alexandra Hamzeh

BIO102 Lecture Notes Week 1 BIO 102

Marketplace > Pace University > Biology > BIO 102 > BIO102 Lecture Notes Week 1
Alexandra Hamzeh
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Attached are the notes from week 1 that will be covered on the exam.
General Biology II
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Hamzeh on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 102 at Pace University taught by Gelman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Pace University.

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Date Created: 01/26/16
Lecture Notes January 26, 2016 Charles Darwin: theory of evolution Darwin observed and noted: • Variations amongst individuals § Variations can be passed down from parent to offspring § Variations lead to differences in the ability to survive, escape predators, find a mate and produce healthy/fertile offspring • Noticed natural sources are limited (food, water, shelter, sunlight and salt (plants), mating privileges (rights) limited • Natural selection “survival of the fittest”: certain individuals are chosen by nature to survive and reproduce (due to their traits) and can pass along these traits to their offspring What is evolution? • A change in the DNA in a population over time population/species • Modern day evidence or examples Ø Antibiotic resistant bacteria (gonorrhea, tuberculosis) Ø Pesticide resistant bacteria • Darwin described evolution as descent with modification meaning changes can be passed down • Lamarck was the first to discuss evolution not Darwin • Lamarck observed that if Giraffes had long necks their children would have longer necks • Individuals do not evolve populations do DNA Review • DNA is a nucleic acids DNA (a nucleotide) • Monomer of nucleic acid: nucleotides • Nucleotides are made of a pentose (5 Carbon sugar deoxyribose), phosphate groups, nitrogenous bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine, guanine) • Mutation: is a change in the DNA sequence change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA • Three possibilities as to why 1. Wrong base(s) 2. Missing base(s) 3. Extra base(s) Taxonomy Review • Science of naming and classifying organisms • Very controversial amongst scientists • The binomial system of nomenclature • Binomial: “2-name name” • Genus species • Three domain scheme: 1. Archae 2. Eukarya including: protists, fungi, plants, and animals 3. Bacteria 5 Kingdoms 1. Monera split into 1) archaebactreria and 2) eubacteria 2. Protista 3. Fungi 4. Plantae 5. Animalia How to memorize: King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti • Kingdom: most inclusive • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species: most specific Article selection is breeding for desirable traits examples dogs are breeded differently by different noses, different ears another example: fruits if not organic Controversy: short snout causes difficulty in breathing Evidence that evolution has occurred 1. Fossil record • Fossil: “to be dug up” • Evidence of prior/ancient life • Paleontology: study of fossils • Rocks occur in layers • Layers are known as: strata • Deeper layer means: older rock • Appearances and disappearances the older the rock the more simple the organisms and the newer the rock the more complex it is • Fossil record is incomplete: works against idea of evolution 2. Comparative morphology (anatomy) • Similarities in structure • Analogous: structures are similar due to shared function Ø Known as convergent (coming together) evolution Ø Example: wing of bird or bee • Homologous structures Ø Similarity due to shared evolutionary history Ø Example: human arm vs. bat wing similar because we are related • Vestigial structures Ø Structures that have no present function, but probably did in the past or will in the future Ø Vestigial structure snakes have hips which leads to some attachments which means that they once or will have legs in the past or in the future 3. Comparative embryology • Similarities that occurs in early development 4. Comparative molecular biology (DNA & RNA) 5. Comparative protein biochemistry 6. Biogeography/plate tectonics and continental drift • Biogeography: study of the distribution of life forms on earth • Plate tectonic and continental drift: have to do with the movement of continents • Camels usually found in the middle east and lamas are found in south America similar but maybe they shared a common ancestor or came together while the continents were together • Example: flying squirrel one in North America and one in Australia might have shared a common ancestor Definitions Chapter 14 Genetics 1. Gene: segments of DNA that “codes for a trait” or units of heredity 2. Trait: characteristic: morphological (structural) trait, physiological trait, Behavioral trait • Genes are found on chromosomes 3. Chromosome: is a segment of DNA, packaged with proteins 4. Locust: location of a gene on a chromosome 5. Alleles: different forms of a gene 6. Genotype: the genetic makeup or the combination of alleles Types of alleles 1. Dominant allele: stronger allele 2. Recessive allele: weaker allele, whose effects my be masked by the dominant allele • Under “normal patterns of inheritance” there are 3 potential genotypes for a given trait. 1. Homozygous dominant: Homo means same, zygote (fertilized egg) Ø Two copies of the dominant allele of given locus (on homologous chromosome) Ø Homologous=similar 2. Homozygous recessive Ø Two copies of a recessive allele at a given locus 3. Heterozygous Ø One dominant allele + 1 recessive allele at a given locus Phenotype • A physical characteristic that could be observed, tested for, or measured • Example: hair color presence or absence of disease • The phenotype is based upon the genotype Chapter 23 Definitions 1. Microevolution: small-scale changes in allele frequencies in a population (over time) 2. Frequency: how common an allele is in a gene pool 3. Directional selection: the phenotype appears to move in a particular direction


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