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First Week of Notes

by: Mary Susan Mobley

First Week of Notes HIST 2010

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 2010 > First Week of Notes
Mary Susan Mobley
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Native Americans
American History I
Reagan L Grimsley
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Susan Mobley on Tuesday January 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2010 at Auburn University taught by Reagan L Grimsley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see American History I in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/26/16
Tuesday, January 19, 2016 US History Sources - Primary source: Heard from the mouth of someone who saw it; first person Historians try to get as many first-person sources to form a valid fact • • Autobiography - The person whose life it is about writes it themselves - Secondary Source: Someone who writes about it later • Biography - Written later in time by a second party • Newspapers - Can be both Primary and Secondary Looking at a paper from 100 years ago gets a little more credibility because we have no other source from that time to tell us what happens and they were there and alive at the time Americas First Inhabitants - First people to inhabit the Americas - Native Americans - Got to the Americas 12,000-15,000 years ago by land bridge between Asia and US - Part of Ice Age - Land bridge was frozen over so that people could travel across - Archeological and DNA tracing has led us to believe that Native Americans came across about 20,000 years ago and filtered throughout the US - Another way people came to America - Sailing • Vikings came from Northern North America (modern day Canada) - Polynesians could have made journeys from South America and back - 12-14k years ago most people in the world did not live as we do today - These people were hunters and gatherers and they were looking for somewhere that had a food source - Native American tribes around Oregon and Washington relied on fishing because there was an abundance of Salmon (Coastal Indians) - Plains Indians main food source was Buffalo - The Coastal Indians developed houses, started to plant things and began to settle where they were - sedentary 1 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - The plains Indians continued up until the 1800s to move frequently, because their food source would move. Which means they had a less sedentary lifestyle - Indians in the Southeast developed intense agricultural sources and also became more sedentary because they couldn’t leave their agriculture - The Mississippians or mound builders - Etowa in Georgia - Mounds are scattered all throughout the SE - These tribes were more advanced and developed - These tribes grew large enough that everyone did not have to do agriculture work, but could engage in building mounds - The largest mound is Cahokioa right outside St. Louis - Planted maze, potatoes, which gave them a reliable food source - Cons to having 50,000 people in small place - waste which leads to disease - Mounds located near water source for water supply and for travel - Native Americans would trade up and down the rivers where they were located with other tribes and this would generate wealth - Fairly sophisticated Native American cities flourished and then abruptly disappeared • Could have been disease, Many cities were in decline before Europeans came to Americas, environmental reason - exhausted the agricultural resources - Native Americans passed on their knowledge by stories and paintings because they did not have a written language until the 1800s - Before the 1800s they had an oral tradition - the story teller was responsible for learning the stories passed down from generation to generation - could be a slippery slope - stories getting more ambiguous - Polytheistic - Worship more than one god - Multiple creation stories - Seasons were very important - creeks, the time of harvest and planting is very important because if something goes wrong during the cycle you starve for the winter - Creeks had green corn ceremony - Their celebration of the success of the Harvest. It meant that had been able to survive through any struggles they had during the season - Most Native Americans were matrilineal - followed female line of descent 2 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - By the time the Europeans came to the new world in the late 1400s the native Americans had been there for 10-20k years - Difference in new world and old world - New world developed much superior technology Variation of Native American Tribes - There was a large difference in lifestyle between the tribes partially by where they live and what their environment was like - Within larger tribes there were smaller sub-sets of tribes - Weaponry was primitive, but effective - Did not have horses until the 1500s - Did not have pigs or cows in the new world - Alfred Crosby - research goes back to the 1970s is about how when Europeans came to americans they not only subjugated the Native americans, but also animals - Many invasive environmental species that were brought over by Europeans that are not actually native to the New World - We see a mixing of environments - the old world remained isolated and had different environmental components than the new world - Native Americans were the First Americans - Can’t be certain how many people were actually here - We don’t know how many villages there were or how far apart they were Extra - Populated all of americas (Canada and south america) - Land bridge from Siberia to Alaska - Move with extended families - Nomadic - Changes in climate cause extinction of large sources of meat and a new focus on agriculture instead of hunting 3 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - Native americans began to grow foods for consumption around 9,000 years ago • Maize • Squash • Beans • Peppers - Permanent or semi-permanent settlements were established - Used fire to clear lands, which in turn created more fertile soils and attracted wildlife - This success in agriculture lead to more advanced societies like - Aztec, Mayan, and Mississippians - Village that relies on agriculture could store food better Mississippians - Flourished in what is now the central and southern US from roughly 700 AD to 1600 AD - Marked by the building of giant mounds for spiritual purposed - Often located near rivers, and served as trading centers - Others: Ocmulgee near Macon GA, Kolomoki Mounds, and Rood Mounds in Stewart County - Mounds had walls around the sides for protection - walls around 3 sides and river on 4th - Higher status people lived inside the wall - Men hunted and were warriors - Women did much of the agricultural and domestic labor - Culture went into decline before 1500, either from disease introduced by Europeans or from intense warfare 4 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 Native American Religion - Pueblos who relied on agriculture had festivals which focused on planting and harvest • Creeks and green corn ceremony - Plains indians often worshiped gods associated with animals Native American Societies in 1492 - Over 4 million Native Americans lived north of Mexico by 1492 - In the area which is now the US hundreds of tribes existed , many with diverse cultures - Tribes in these areas spoke 1000 different languages - Oral traditions and languages were lost 5


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